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B2 Revision…read more

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RESPERIATION; the process of breaking down glucose to release
energy, and it goes on in every cell in the body. The energy is used
for things like; building up larger molecules (like proteins),
contracting muscles and maintain a steady body temperature. It also
happens in plants ­ all living things respire, its how they get energy
from their food
· The circulatory system carriers glucose, oxygen and CO around the body in the
· The glucose needed for respiration comes from breaking down food in the
digestive system
· The oxygen comes from air breathed into the lungs. CO is breathed out.
· The smallest blood vessels in the body are the capillaries. All the cells in the body
have capillaries nearby to supply them with glucose and oxygen, and take away the
Carbon Dioxide. These substances move between cells and the capillaries via a
process called diffusion
· Veins ­ carry blood back to heart
· Arteries ­ carry blood away from heart…read more

Slide 3

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Diffusion is the movement of particles from an area of higher
concentration to an area of lower concentration
When cells respire they use up oxygen and glucose, so the
concentration of these inside the cells is low. The concentration of
these substances in the blood is higher, so they diffuse from the
capillaries into the cells.
When cells respire they produce lots of Carbon Dioxide, so the
concentration of this in the cells is high. This means CO diffuses
from the cells into the blood, where the concentration is lower…read more

Slide 4

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Aerobic Respiration;
Using oxygen. Its the most efficient way to release energy from glucose.
Equation;; GO WEC
Glucose + Oxygen = Carbon Dioxide + Water + Energy
C6H12O6 + O = CO + HO + Energy
Anaerobic Respiration;
Happens when there's not enough Oxygen ­ it does not release as much energy as
aerobic. Equation;;
Glucose = Lactic Acid + Energy
You can't use it for long;
- it produces a build-up of lactic acid in the muscles which gets painful and can
give you cramp
- After anaerobic respiration, when you stop exercising you will have oxygen debt
which needs to be repayed, therefore you have to keep breathing hard for a
while after you stop to get oxygen into your muscles to convert lactic acid to
harmless CO and water.
- But an advantage is you can use your muscles for a while longer…read more

Slide 5

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When you exercise you respire more;
· Muscles need energy from respiration to contract. When you exercise some of
your muscles contract more frequently than normal so you need more enrgy.
This energy comes from increased respiration ­ so you need to get more oxygen
into the cells
· Your breathing rate increases to get more oxygen into the blood. To get his
oxygenated blood around the body faster your heart rate increases. This
removes CO more quickly at the same time.
· The rate at which oxygen diffuses from the blood into the cells increases during
exercise. This is because diffusion is quicker when the concentration difference
is larger. The cell has very low O as its using it up really quickly. CO diffuses out
of the cell quicker too because there is loads being produced in the cell
· Diffusion of O and CO also increases at the lung surface because of bigger
concentration differences and because the surface area for diffusion increases
(the lungs expand more when you exercise)
· When you do really vigorous exercise like sprinting your body can't supply
enough oxygen to your muscles quickly enough so they start respiring
anarobically…read more

Slide 6

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Heat and breathing rate can be monitored;
· Professional athletes measure their heart rate, breathing rate and temperature
to help with their training
· You can measure heart rate during exercise by taking pulse, and breathing rate
by counting breaths. You can measure body temperature with a thermometer.
Body temperature goes up during exercise because increased respiration
releases more heat energy
· You can take all these measurements with digital monitors too ­ recording
electronically instead of counting. This has advantages over methods like
counting breaths, pulse taking and thermometers;
- the athlete can carry the monitoring equipment themselves, as they exercise
- digital recorders don't lose count or miss a beat like humans do
- you can monitor changes continuously, instead of having to stop to take a pulse…read more

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