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Biology Notes
B1
Year 10
Shortened forms:
Metabolic rate ­ MB
Blood cholesterol levels ­ BCL
Bacteria B
Virus / Viruses V
White blood cell WBC
Antibiotics ­ AB
Characteristic(s) ­ CH





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Page 2

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B1 1.1 ­ Diet and Exercise

Changing lifestyles

Serious health problems due to poor diet and lack of exercise
Too much sugar, lack of fruit and vegetable

You are what you eat

Carbohydrates and fats provide energy (alive/active)
Proteins, vitamins and minerals ­ grow and replace damaged cells and tissues…

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B1 1.2 ­ Slimming Plans
Do you believe what you read?

Fake slimming products to make money off people (not band by government)
Only way to lose weight ­ eat healthy foods & keep energy intake below energy use
Exercise increases amount of energy used

Slimming drugs warning

¾ of…

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B1 1.3 ­ Pathogens
Transferring infections

Deadly infectious diseases spread in hospitals because hygiene rules are broken e.g. don't wash hands after
treating a patient
Infections are carried by dust mites ­ improving ward cleanliness reduces spread of infections

Ignaz Semmelweiss

Microorganisms ­ tiny living things only seen through a…

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B1 1.4 ­ Defence against diseases
Immunity

Bubble boy
B and V release toxins (poisonous chemicals) and they make you ill
B and V prevent cells from working properly
Headache, fever, feeling sick (symptoms)
B inside you multiply every 20 min
Viruses multiply inside cells by entering them, using the…

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B1 1.5 ­ Treating and preventing disease
Feeling ill

Medicines help to relieve symptoms (e.g. lozenges for sore throat) but don't not kill the pathogen

Killing Bacteria (AB = Antibiotics)

Antibiotics = medicines that help cure diseases caused by B
AB kill B inside body
Penicillin was first AB discovered…

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A quick jab

Immunity can be gained
w/o ever having the
disease
When baby ­ immunised
against whooping cough,
measles and polio
Immunisation
(vaccination) = injecting or
swallowing a vaccine.
Dead or inactive form of
the pathogen.
Vaccine doesn't make you ill but WBC still produce Antibodies and destroy the…

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Important to not overuse AB
AB not to treat nonserious infections e.g. sore throat
AB prescribed only for serious disease
Increased use of AB may result in them not working when you need them too

Changing Virus

Flu/influenza lasts normally between 12 weeks
Flu virus = produces new strands and…

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The MMR controversy

MMR might trigger autism Study based on 12 children
In UK children receiving MMR dropped by 60% (2005), MMR jabs received raised to 98% (2010)
No more studies have linked MMR and autism after that
Parents think of children, government think of society as a whole



































B1…

Page 10

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Safety procedures need to be followed so that harmful microbes don't enter the strain you are growing and
reproduce. (greater health risk if a single cell)
Uncontaminated cultures are prepared by using sterile or aseptic equipment
Pressurised steam used to serialise glassware and culture media in an auto clave ­…

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