Spectrometry - OCR

Revision notes on spectrometry for A2 Chemistry.

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Spectrometry
Infa-red Spectrometry
detects functional groups
a) C=O Carbonyl - approx. 1700cm­1
(1680cm­1 ­ 1750cm­1)
peak is big and strong
b) O­H Carboxylic Acid - approx. 3000cm­1
(2500cm­1 ­ 3300cm­1)
peak is broad - `Big and fat'
Alcohols and Phenols - approx. 3000cm­1
(3230cm­1 ­ 3550cm­1)
peak is broad - `Big and fat'
c) C­O Ester/Alcohol - approx. 1200 cm­1
(1000 cm­1 ­ 1300cm­1)
always found in the fingerprint region
d) N­H Amine - approx. 3300cm­1
(3100cm­1 ­ 3500cm­1)
Fingerprint region ­ can identify a specific compound
Mass Spectrometry
Used to determine the relative atomic mass of isotopes of an element
Vaporisation
Ionisation
Acceleration
Deflect
Detect
Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Spectrometry (N.M.R Spec.)
Has medical applications
M.R.I. scan ­ Magnetic resonance imaging
It can tell some protons from others
Not all protons (Hs) are the same
detects Hydrogen environments
Written By [email protected]

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Ha ­ Part of CH3 joined to another CH3
Hb ­ Part of CH3 joined to another CH3
Hc ­ Part of CH3 joined to a CH2
Hd ­ Part of CH2 joined to two CH3
He ­ Part of CH3 joined to a CH2
Hf ­ Part of CH3 joined to a CH
Hg ­ Part of CH2 joined to a CH and CH3
N.M.R of Ethanol
Written By [email protected]…read more

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Spin-Spin Coupling
Each H affects its neighbours
When anything spins it generates a magnetic field
Each H is affected by number of H's on adjacent C's
We have to apply the (n+1) rule
o We first have to count the number of H's on adjacent C's (n)
o Spin-Spin coupling splits the peaks into (n+1) peaks
Joined to no H's 1 split Singlet
Joined to a total of 1 2 splits Doublet
H's
Joined to a total of 2 3 splits Triplet
H's
Joined to…read more

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