south africa and Russia

notes on aparthied in south africa, pre 1905 - after 1917

HideShow resource information
Preview of south africa and Russia

First 503 words of the document:

Julian Smilg LTJA Saturday, 30 May 2009
History Revision Notes
Russia until 1905
Why was Russia so hard to rule in 1900?:
The economy
Russia was rich in natural resources but made less than smaller countries from these. Russia's main source of
wealth was from farming. However, old-fashioned farming methods and bad weather often spoiled harvests
and caused terrible famines. Farming did not produce enough money to buy new machinery. On the other
hand, the natural resources and cheap labour encouraged foreigners to set up new industries in Russia. These
foreigners took the profits, which meant that Russia had to borrow large amounts of money from other
Distance and communications
The size of the Russian Empire made it difficult to rule. Nicholas's Empire covered a sixth of the world's
surface and was over twice the size of the US. Communications were poor and very slow. There were vast
distances to travel. For parts of the year the seas and lakes in the north were frozen. Roads were in a terrible
condition, especially in winter. Even on the new railway a journey took roughly 3 ½ days. Many different
cultures and languages were an additional obstacle to movement and communication.
A variety of people
There were over 125 million people in Russia and this number was growing fast. The Russians were
outnumbered by a number of people who spoke different languages and who differed in culture. This did not
lead to feelings of patriotism.
1900 social triangle
The Tsar was claimed to have divine right of god which means he thought that he was appointed Tsar by god.
Under the Tsar is the Aristocracy and Noblemen. They set down the law and owned the land. Then is the
church. They were perceived as being clever tricksters that fooled nobles and other Russians out of there
money. They supported the idea that the Tsar was appointed by god. Next was the Army. They were
controlled by the nobles. The army was respected but at the same time hated for being for the only purpose
to shoot the peasants. Second from bottom is the middle class. The Marxist view of them is that they eat
instead of the peasants. They were a minority. Last and bottom of the pile was the peasants how made up
the vast majority. They were the lowest class.
Low wages and a shortage of housing led to terrible living conditions. It was normal to work 11 ½ hours a day
and to return to live in rented rooms with up to 10 people. Very few people could read or right.
Revolution threat
In the late 1800s there was a famine. Lenin refused to help the people and many had to migrate to cities.
Revolutionaries like Lenin started to teach people to read and right to spread ideas about a revolution.

Other pages in this set

Page 2

Preview of page 2

Here's a taster:

Causes of the 1905 revolution:
Reference= `who were the major enemies of the Tsar?" 24/09/08
Long term reasons
The revolution in Russia in 1905 was triggered by several different reasons. Several of these were long-term
reasons. These were important because they showed steadily growing unrest against the leaders of Russia.
One of these was the rebellious nature of the universities and colleges. Leon Trotsky was a revolutionary
who played an instrumental role in the student strikes. He was a Marxist.…read more

Page 3

Preview of page 3

Here's a taster:

After the war there were many strikes in St. Petersburg. The workers were angry. This led to a Sunday 9th of
January, soon to be known as bloody Sunday. Bloody Sunday was one of the biggest marches in Russia's
history. The workers marched inwards on the centre of St Petersburg, singing and chanting their opinions. On
that night 200 and people were killed. This is a dubious figure as numbers ranging from 4,600, from the
journalists, and 133 from the government were put out.…read more

Page 4

Preview of page 4

Here's a taster:

Tsar. Sergie Witte and Peter Stolypin, the former being responsible for the Dumas and
the latter for the special consideration of peasants, where both employed by the Tsar. Witte devised the
October manifesto. This was a set of policies that satisfied the liberals needs and had a desirable outcome for
them. Although the liberals did not know it, unfortunately none of the promised power would ever come
their way. Stolypin created special ways of splitting up the land.…read more

Page 5

Preview of page 5

Here's a taster:

The war effort caused economic chaos.
By February 1917, people in the towns were starving and freezing.
The revolution was started by the women - on 8 March 1917 they went on a march demanding
bread, which turned into rioting.
The tsarina called in the troops. However, on 12 March they mutinied and started to help the
Workers and soldiers set up the Petrograd Soviet to coordinate the revolution.
The tsar went to pieces and was unable to make any decisions.…read more

Page 6

Preview of page 6

Here's a taster:

A private Bolshevik army (the Red Guards), dedicated to the revolution, was set up and trained under Leon
Trotsky It gave the Bolsheviks the military power to win.
7. Organisation
The Bolsheviks were brilliantly organised (or were they?). A central committee (controlled by Lenin and other
leading Bolsheviks) sent orders to the soviets, who gave orders to the factories. Membership grew to 2
million in 3 months.…read more

Page 7

Preview of page 7

Here's a taster:

The main aim of Malan's Apartheid was to extend the white supremacy in South Africa. The apartheid policy
was designed to separate black and white South Africans, to oppress, dominate and control blacks, and in the
same breath to enrich white South Africans at the expense of the oppressed people.
Only the so-called "white" citizens of South Africa were allowed to vote and participate in government, black
South Africans were forbidden.…read more

Page 8

Preview of page 8

Here's a taster:

Africans, and entering locations and public facilities designated for one
race only.
In early 1953, the government imposing stiff penalties for protesting discriminatory laws, including heavy
fines and prison sentences of up to five years. It then enacted the Public Safety Act, allowing declaration of a
State of Emergency to override existing laws and oversight by courts. Although the Defiance Campaign did
not achieve its goals, it demonstrated large-scale and growing opposition to apartheid.…read more


No comments have yet been made

Similar History resources:

See all History resources »See all resources »