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Slide 1

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Internal factors effecting the
achievement of Girls
By Kirsty Stimpson, Natalie Pullen
and Hannah Penfold…read more

Slide 2

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1. Equal opportunities polices
2. Positive role models in school
3. GCSE and Coursework
4. Teacher attention and classroom interaction
5. Challenging stereotypes in the curriculum
6. Selection and league tables…read more

Slide 3

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· Many sociologists argue that feminists ideas have had a major impact on
the education system. Those who run the system are much more aware of
gender issues and teachers are more sensitive to the need to avoid
gender stereotype. The belief that boys and girls are equally capable and
entitled to the same opportunities is now part of mainstream thinking in
education and influences educational policies.
· For example, policies such as GIST and WIST encourage girls to pursue
careers in these non traditional areas. Female scientists have visited
schools acting as role models, this has made girls think they can achieve a
scientific career.
· Similarly, the introduction of the national curriculum in 1988, removed
one source of gender inequality by making girls and boys study mostly the
same subjects which was often not the case previously.
· Joe Boaler 1998 sees the impact of equal opportunities policies as a key
reason for the changed in girls achievement. Many of the barriers have
been removed and schools have become more meritocratic so that girls
who generally work harder than boys achieve more.…read more

Slide 4

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Positive role models in school
· In recent years there has been an increase in the
proportion of female teaches and head teachers.
· These women in position of authority can act as a role
model of girls and something to strive for and to see
other roles for them that are different from the
housewife role. It also gives them non-traditional goals
to aim for. Woman teachers are likely to be particularly
important role models as far as girls educational
achievement is concerned since to become a teacher
the individual must undertake a lengthily and
successful education herself. Some primary schools
have become particularly feminised as they have
virtually all female staff.…read more

Slide 5

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· -The introduction of GCSE in 1988 brought coursework with
it. This change has been argued to benefit girls over boys.
· Miitos and Browne (1998) argued that girls are more
successful at coursework because they are more organized,
hard working, are better at meeting deadlines and bring the
right equipment and materials to lessons.
· This could come from early gender role socialization, where
girls are more likely to be encouraged to be neat and patient.
· Jannette Elwood (2005) argues that although gender
socialisation where girls are more likely to be encouraged to
be neat and patient, this could have some influence,
coursework is unlikely to be the cause of the gender gap. She
concludes that exams have more influence over their final
grades.…read more

Slide 6

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· The way that teachers interact with boys and girls is different. Dale
Spender 1983, found that teachers spend more time interacting with boys
than with girls.
· However when Jane and Peter French 1993 analysed classroom
interaction. They found that the amount of attention teachers pay to boys
and girls for academic reasons was similar, boys only receive more
attention because they attracted more reprimands.
· Becky Francis, found that whilst boys got more attention, they were
picked on by teachers and disciplined more harshly.
· Joan Swann and David Graddol 1994, found that boys were generally
more boisterous and that is why they were getting more attention. They
also found that the ways teachers interacted with girls was more positive
because it focused on school work rather than behaviour. Swann 1998,
also found that gender differences in communication styles, boys
dominated a whole class discussion, whereas girls preferred pair work and
group work and were better at listening and cooperating. Teachers then
because of this, responded more positively to girls as a whole and this
may lead to a self-fulfilling prophecy, where because teachers are
promoting girls, it lowers their self-esteem and raised their achievement…read more

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