First 1200 words of the document:
THE SOCIOLOGICAL STUDY OF SUICIDE
POSITIVISTIC APPROACH EMILE DURKHEIM
METHODOLOGY STATISTICAL ANALYSIS FOUR TYPES OF SUICIDE CRITISIMS
Durkheim argued that it was possible to study society using Durkheim found that there was a EGOISTIC - Not Enough ANOMIC Too Much HALBWACHS Supported
positivistic/qualitative methods such as official statistics. correlation between suicide and social Integration. Person isn't Integration. When people Durkheim's conclusions but pointed
Durkheim deliberately chose suicide to illustrate this point in fact meaning it isn't a random act. successfully integrated into become bewildered and find out that the impacts of rural versus
Suicide rates are higher in: groups or society so individual it hard to adapt to increased urban lifestyles on suicide hadn't
hopes that it would secure sociology among newly emerging
- men than women failure or unhappiness are levels of social change. A been considered. Did Durkheim
sciences because suicide wasn't viewed as a social phenomenon - people who are single acceptable grounds to commit modern example could be question the reliability or accuracy
but as the most individual, private and psychologically driven act. - without children suicide e.g. unmarried people suicides taking place in Iraq of the statistics?
He used a rigorous, systematic and scientific method called - soldiers than civilians are more likely to commit suicide or in Libya because of the
multivariate analysis (gathering statistics e.g. death certificates - among Protestants than Catholics than married people. war or in Zimbabwe because
and other official documents, from different societies and and Jews GIBBS AND MARTIN -
of the high rates of inflation.
- In times of peace than in times of Durkheim didn't use enough
comparing them to help explain social differences between ALTURISTIC Not Enough FATALISTIC Too Much
war vigorous methods because he
societies), to study suicide. Regulation This type of suicide Regulation. Was common
- more academically educated succeeded in closely defining the
SOCIAL FACTS However there's more of a correlation is becoming more and more during slavery. Now it concepts of integration and
Durkheim viewed sociology as the "science of social fact". Social between an individual's religion and common and it occurs when the accounts very high levels of regulation but didn't statistically
suicide rate than an individual's individual is expect to take their suicides in prisons. It Occurs measure them. They also argue how
facts are the values, cultural norms and social structures found
education level; Jewish people were own lives to benefit the wider when people can't cope with anyone can define normal levels of
throughout society that exist prior and external to the individual group e.g. 7/7 London suicide prison lifestyle where further
generally highly educated but had a integration and regulation.
.They can be measured and are observable, material or non- bombings at Russell Square. injustices occur such as rape.
low suicide rate.
material activity that has implications throughout society, in the
economic, legal, political, cultural, domestic and religious
systems. Examples include money, sexuality, and religion.
ALTERNATIVE THEORIES OF SUICDE
INTEPRETIVISTIC APPROACHES MERGING BOTH PRESEPECTIVES
JACK DOUGLAS JEAN BAECHLER PHENOENOLOGY MAXWELL ATKINSON REALISM STEVE TAYLOR
No single act that can be termed "suicide" because suicide has different He agreed with Douglas ~ case studies of SUICIDE NOTES a suicide is more likely to have occurred if there is a Taylor argued that both Durkheim and critics
meanings to different people and their motives vary too - the only thing they enable researchers to get closer to valid suicide note that's been left, however Douglas points out that the note have missed the significance of parasuicides
have in common is death. Suicide needs much greater exploration as to its suicide statistics. Suicidal behaviour is as an could have been left by the murderer. (suicide attempts whereby a person gambles
meaning than Durkheim provided. Douglas is interested in the roles and example of an extreme form problem MODE OF DEATH people who commit suicides tend to drug overdose, with their life but are not certain whether
interactions taken by all of the concerned parties after a suicide particularly solving by people who can't see a solution hanging or drowning to commit kill themselves rather than road deaths. they want to live or die). He said when
the family members, friends and the coroner. If the person was well to personal life issues. The main types of However some people may choose to use that form of death to avoid people are questioned on suicide; their
integrated into social groups, it is possible that family and friends may be suicides according to Baechler are: embarrassment for their family or complications when claiming life attempt is not usually a definite decision but
reluctant to accept the possibility of a suicide therefore they might temper 1.Escapist Suicides suicide is used as an insurance. more of a gamble. Taylor disagrees with the
with evidence such as suicide notes; because coroners are less like to reach escape from problems such as grief or PLACE OF DEATH where the death occurred is important in determining view that suicide is a social construction &
a suicide verdict without suicide note. Catholic countries are an example terminal illness. whether or not suicide was the cause of death. For example the death of a agrees with Durkheim's conclusions of the
they are more reluctant to deaths as suicide due to their beliefs that it is 2.Aggressive Suicides same as revenge farmer by gunshot is like to be a suicide if it takes place inside the four types of suicides but says his argument
sinful to commit suicide so their suicide rates might be higher than what suicide. Suicide is used to punish. farmhouse instead of outside. is that it is possible to pull together the wider
official statistics show. Suicides are social constructs, but it is possible to get 3.Transfiguration Suicides suicide is History of MENTAL ILLNESS lack of a stable home life, abuse in social factors (e.g. religion) that Durkheim
more valid statistics of suicide by carrying out case studies that involve a used a way of going to the afterlife or childhood, unemployment, failed relationships, are all things that a emphasized about with the sense of meaning
very detailed qualitative analysis of each suicide; interviewing all those who joining loved ones that have recently died. coroner has to consider to deem a death as a suicide. But at best the that intepretivists stressed; the two
knew the deceased, reading diaries, investigating their physical and mental coroner is making an educated guess because only the dead person can be approaches are not necessarily exclusive but
health and examining the circumstances leading up to their death. certain of what their mental health was at the point of death. can be merged together to find a better way
to explain suicide rates in different societies.