First 418 words of the document:
Parsons, 65 pre/post, rural/urban, extended/nuclear, 4 roles/privatised, equal/sexual
Functionalist. division. Leslett, 72 found only 10% in parish records lived extended families.
Murdock, 49 Nuclear family is universal, performs 4 roles. Families are cultural not
Functionalist. biological so norms/values will vary, functions will vary.
Wilkinson, 94 Feminist. Genderquake (education and work more important) means women marry
Smith, 01 Feminist. Marriage promotes faithfulness/trust that does not exist in society.
Campbell, 00 Feminist. Marriage benefits men more than women.
Beck & Beck Gersheim Although divorce rates are rising people still want to love. Reconstituted
Post-Modernist. marriage, cohabitation, serial monogamy rise.
Young & Wilmott, 73 Families are becoming more symmetrical and egalitarian as tradition roles
Marxist. break down.
Aries, 62 Childhood is a social construct. Pre-industrialisation children were just small
Social Historian. adults /economic assets.
Bowles & Gintis, 76 Functions: Education legitimises/promotes: hierarchy, conformity, reward,
Marxist alienation (correspondence principle). Also creates myth of meritocracy.
Osler & Starkey, 03 Young people portrayed badly in citizenship education (deficit model), ethnic
minorities suffer a dual deficit. Labels arise from these.
Bourdieu, 73 Education draws on middleclass cultural capital so working-classes are
Rosenthal & Jacobson, Pupils given higher fake IQ tests progressed more due to positive teacher
Ghevarughese, 87 Colonialism rewrote history to exclude non-European contributions to
society, knowledge, etc. Ethnocentric curriculum.
Harker, 06 Poor quality housing affects achievement. (less study space,
bullying=truancy, poor health, stress, etc.)
Labov, 73 Black working-class Harlem kids could express sophisticated ideas. They
face a language barrier and are thus disadvantaged not any less intelligent.
Becker, 71 Teachers described attitude, appearance, etc of a `ideal student' before
they mentioned ability. This is why middle-classes achieve. Mention Michael
Sewell, 77 Minorities who do not join anti-school subcultures are negatively labelled and
made unpopular with their own `kind' by not joining their subcultures.
Goddard-spear, 84 Science teachers were given work to mark if they were told it was done by
girls they would mark them lower than boys. Boys did better in `male' lessons.
Ball & Bowe, 95 Middle class parents had wealth, experience and contacts to choose their
child's school. Parentocracy, Working classes do not.
Callender & Jackson, 05 The threat of debt makes working classes avoid university. Those who do go
receive higher levels of debt and more likely to work to support themselves.