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UPPER CLASS AND IDENTITY
3 different groups:
Traditional upper class ­ Royalty, `old rich e.g. traditional landowning
aristocracy & titled ranks ­ close family networks established through
intermarriage
Owners of industry and commerce ­ `corporate rich 'of the business world ­
`new rich'
Stars of entertainment ­ Beckhams ­ `new rich'
Other two groups acquired their own wealth and `old rich' regard them as
culturally inferior
Culture includes: domestic staff, etiquette manners, high culture…read more

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MIDDLE CLASS AND IDENTITY
5 different groups:
Professionals ­ e.g. lawyers. Value educations, independence, high culture and high
cultural capital.
Managers ­ in private sector businesses and government officials. Identity formed in
terms of consumer spending & lifestyles their income support. Likely to adopt
traditional m/c identities
Self-employed small business owners ­ individualistic identity ­ likely to be work
centred.
Finance & creative m/c ­ those in finance and media. Young, well-off & high levels
of consumer spending. Elements of both high/pop culture. Very individualistic.
Concerned with earning and consuming to form & show affluent identity
Low m/c `white collar' workers ­ routine, non-manual work ­ shared collective
identity expressed through trade unions.…read more

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MIDDLE CLASS CULTURE
Difficult to generalise a shared m/c culture as it is a wide class and is
expanding rapidly. Although certain norms and values they share are:
- commitment to education and recognition of its importance for career
success
- knowing the importance of individual effort, personal ambition, self-help for
success in life
-sense of individual and family self interest
- concern with future orientation and deferred gratification
- greater respect for high culture than popular
- concern with health…read more

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TRADITIONAL WORKING CLASS
Declined in the last century as factories closed down. Culture features:
- close-knit community (looked out for each other)
- Men=breadwinners females=housewives
- hard manual work gave men sense of masculinity and was their main source
of identity
- job and money more significant than education
- strong commitment to old labour party
- view of society based on struggle between classes
- enjoyment & participation in popular culture
- swearing…read more

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3 ATTITUDES OF TRADITIONAL WORKING
CLASS
Immediate gratification ­ enjoying pleasures today rather than putting them
off
Present-time orientation ­ focus on present rather than future
Sense of fatalism- acceptance of the situation they found themselves in as
they did not see hope of improvement in their lives.…read more

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