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· Early 20th century, behaviourist psychologists began to criticise
psychologists who believed that psychology was about studying the
inner consciousness as they claimed it to be a subjective study of
behaviour and so it could therefore not be replicated to check the
reliability of their findings.
· Instead they believe that psychology should be the observation of
behaviour, a more objective measure, in a particular environment.
· Traditional behaviourists try to establish laws that link environmental
stimuli with certain actions so as to be able to describe, predict and
control behaviour.…read more

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- The behaviourist approach is primarily concerned with observable
behaviour, as opposed to internal events like thinking and emotion.
Observable (external) behaviour can be objectively and scientifically
- Psychology is a science so behaviour must be measured in highly
controlled environments to establish cause and effect
- When born, our mind is a blank slate
- There is little difference between the learning that takes place in
humans and that in other animals
- Behaviour is the result of a stimulus
- All behaviour is learnt from the environment
- All normal and abnormal behaviour can be learned and unlearned…read more

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Operant conditioning
- This involves learning through the consequences (positive and negative) of our behaviour.
E.g. teaching a dog to fetch or roll by rewarding the dog in training. Unlike classical
conditioning, it involves voluntary behaviour and not a reflex behaviour.
Positive reinforcement Negative reinforcement
Increases likelihood of a response occurring Increases likelihood of a response occurring
because it involves a reward for the because it involves the removal of, or
behaviour. escaping from, and unpleasant consequence
E.g. Giving you an allowance for good E.g. torture is stopped when the victim
behaviour confesses
Positive punishment Negative punishment
The consequence is receiving something The consequence is removing something
unpleasant which decreases the probability desirable and decreases the probability of
of the behaviour being repeated the behaviour being repeated
E.g. Punishing a behaviour by hitting them E.g. Toys being taken away…read more

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Social learning theory
· This theory is based primarily on the work of Bandura as he demonstrated that the application of
consequences was not needed for learning to occur.
· Bandura formulated his findings in a four-step pattern which combines a cognitive view and an operant
view of learning:-
Attention - the individual notices something in the environment
Retention - the individual remembers what was noticed
Reproduction - the individual produces an action that is a copy of what was noticed
Motivation - the environment delivers a consequence that changes the probability the behaviour will be
emitted again (reinforcement and punishment
· The theory that people learn new behaviour through observational learning of the social factors in their
· If people observe positive, desired outcomes in the observed behaviour, then they are more likely to
model, imitate and adopt the behaviour
· If the consequences are positive, or at least not punished, they imitate the behaviour
· Learning models can be by the 3 reinforcements; Positive, negative and Vicarious (indirectly
reinforced by a models behaviours for example copying the actions)…read more

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Pavlov's Dog
Classical conditioning is learning through association; it is the conditioning of reflexes and
associating a new stimulus with an innate bodily reflex (Drooling)
It involves pairing a response naturally caused by one stimulus with another previously neutral
1. Pavlov establish meat caused the dog to salivate
2. Then Pavlov established that a tone did not cause the dog to salivate
3. He then presented the tone with the food. The dog salivates in response to the food at this
The unconditioned response to an unconditioned stimulus (drooling at presence of meat) has
become the conditioned response to the conditioned stimulus (drooling at bell sound)
4. After several pairings of the tone and food, Pavlov found that the dog would salivate to the
tone when it was presented alone without the food

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Kiwiii xo

This is reaallyyy good!

Love the colours, layout and designs!

Whats the chance you've made them for the other approaches as well???

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