Social Inequality - Gender

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Outline the evidence that some males are disadvantaged in the
contemporary UK (20)
Explanation: since the 80's, male educational attainment has been declining, with
statistics showing decreases in the number of males achieving 5 A*-C at GCSE
Intersectional research has shown it is working class boys most disadvantaged
Evidence: Harris ­ found in their study in the 90's that working class boys experience
'gender regimes' in their homes, where they are exposed to males who were
regarded as 'macho males' with no regard for authority ­ as a result these boys were
less likely to respect teachers and gain good qualifications
Evidence: Epstein ­ found that working class boys are likely to be harassed, labelled
as sissies and subjected to homophobic verbal abuse if they appeared to be 'swots' -
this is because in working class culture masculinity is equated with being tough and
doing manual work; they have no regard for educational attainment
Explanation: the Hypodermic Needle model suggests that the media injects specific
values and attitudes into a passive audience; these values can often be racist,
classist, ageist and sexist
Evidence: Easthope - believes media, and Hollywood movies in particular, transmit
the idea that masculinity is based on strength and aggression. This sets unrealistic
standards for men and portrays an ideal which many men may not want to achieve
Explanation: men strive to achieve hegemonic masculinity which is seen as the 'ideal'
within society, however due to deindustrialisation in many Western countries, men
struggle to do this as they cannot use manual labour as an expression of their
Evidence: Mac n Ghail ­ believes both the process of deindustrialisation and the
feminisation of the workplace has led to a crisis of masculinity; men are struggling to
find jobs which portray their hegemonic masculinity
Evidence: Winlow ­ conducted a study regarding bouncers in Sutherland and found
that because of the decline in manual labour, men have turned to the leisure
industry and have taken up jobs as bouncers to try and regain their status (they may
also turn to illegal drug dealing to gain further illegal status)

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Explanation: Government statistics show that men are four times more likely than
women to be found guilty or convicted in court
Evidence: Graham & Bowling ­ proposed the chivalry thesis which suggests that
women tend to be treated more leniently in court than men.…read more

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Evidence: Kelly ­ found that there was a masculine bias in science textbooks; men
tend to be pushed towards scientific studies and subsequent jobs which pay more
and receive higher status in society
Explanation: men seem to do less work regarding the family in comparison to
Evidence: Oakley ­ found that British women were far more likely to work longer
hours in the home than their male partners
Evidence: Dunscombe and Marsden ­ believe only women perform the triple shift
for the family,…read more

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Explanation: since the 1950's, there has been a hegemonic nuclear family ideology in
relation to the family structure; this ideology led to oppressing gender roles and
some of these gender role stereotypes and attitudes can still be found in
contemporary society
Evidence: Dunscombe & Marsden ­ they believe that women still perform three
roles within the household ­ domestic work, emotional work and paid work ­ this
highlights the gender differences and the female disadvantage faced within the
Evidence: Oakley ­ conducted a…read more

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Outline the evidence that some females are advantaged in the contemporary
UK (20)
Explanation: girls used to be disadvantaged in education during the 60's, however
since the 70's girls have begun to outperform boys; they now achieve more A*-Cs at
Evidence: Epstein ­ found that working class boys were more likely to be labelled as
'sissies' in comparison to girls if they were seen as swots; this is because working
class boys tend to have anti-school values
Evidence: Sharpe ­ interviewed a sample…read more

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