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Sliding Filament Theory

1. Nerve impulses arrive at a neuromuscular junction.
2. Calcium ions are released from the sarcoplasmic reticulum (i.e endoplasmic
reticulum).
3. Calcium ions diffuse through the sarcoplasm.
4. This initiates the movement of the protein filaments.
5. Calcium attaches to the troponin molecule causing it to move.…

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Energy is released slowly through aerobic respiration Energy id released quickly through anaerobic
aerobic respiration is used to produce ATP slow respiration using glycogen anaerobic respiration
contractions over a long time period. used to produce ATP quick contractions over a s
time period
Have many mitochondria and high concentrations of…

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The release of CO2 takes place before oxygen is involved.
Respiration turns glucose into CO2 and oxygen into H2O


ATP
1. ATP is a nucleotide that consists of 3 main structures ­ the adenine base, ribose
sugar, and a chain of 3 phosphate groups. (Similar to DNA so can be…

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8. 2 ATPs are used initially and 4 are made, leaving a net gain of 2ATP per
molecule of glucose.


Glucose is at a higher energy level than the pyruvate and so on conversion some energy
becomes available for the direct creation of ATP.
Phosphate from intermediate compounds is transferred…

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4. The remaining 5C compound is also decarboxylated, and then hydrogenated to
form three molecules of NADH and one FADH. This leaves the remaining 4C
compound to combine with another molecule of acetyl CoA. (redox reaction)

5. One of the steps involves Substrate Level Phosphorylation with direct synthesis
of a…

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Anaerobic Respiration

Glucose (C6H12O6 ) lactic acid (2C3 H6O3 ) + energy (2ATP)

Without oxygen to accept the hydrogen ions and electrons, the electron transport
chain will not function. The reduced NAD created during Glycolysis, the link reaction
and the Krebs cycle is not oxidised. Without a supply of oxidised…

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Creatine phosphate breakdown occurs as soon as exercise starts (triggered by the
formation of ADP):

Creatine phosphate creatine + Pi
ADP + Pi ATP

A.K.A = Creatine phosphate + ADP creatine + ATP

This reaction does not require oxygen ­ Known as the ATP/PC system.



Three energy systems

At the…

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Training effects
When we train, our bodies adapt. The adaptations are those that make these systems
more efficient. Adequate oxygen supply and higher VO2 max is maintained by:
- Increasing cardiac output
- Larger heart stroke volume
- Faster rate of breathing / deeper breathing increased blood volume and
haemoglobin…

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Gender male endurance athletes have bigger VO2 max than female endurance
athletes. This is because the average female is smaller than the average male, females
have:
a smaller left ventricle and therefore a lower stroke volume
a lower maximum cardiac output
a lower blood volume, resulting in lower haemoglobin levels…

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Heart rate
Heart rate varies in different individuals.
Differences in heart Size Those with larger hearts expel more blood with each beat
and so do not need to beat as frequently so circulate the same volume of blood around
the body.
Athletes will have low heart rates as the heart…

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