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Bundersrat: Chancellor:
·58 representatives from across · Head of government.
German states. ·Could be appointed or dismiss
·Headed by Chancellor by Kaiser.
·Could initiate legislation by ·Responsible directly to the
majority vote. Kaiser.
·Not elected.
German Constitution.
Kaiser: Reichstag ­
· Majority of the power. (Lower house)
· had the right to appoint/dismiss
chancellors.
Electorate: · Gave consent to all laws.
· Can dissolve Reichstag. ·All men over the age of 25 could ·Could question/debate any
·Controlled most foreign policy. vote. proposed laws.
·Had say in all domestic laws. ·Secret ballot was introduced. ·Couldn't amend laws.
·Appeared fair. · All members elected by
electorate called deputies.…read more

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1912 election: The Zabern Affair 1913:
· In the election the SPD polled 4,250,000 votes · A young German army officer, made some
and became the largest party in the Reichstag derogatory remarks about locals to his troops
with 110 deputies. that were printed in the local press.
· The improvement was due to and alliance with · The Kaiser remained on a hunting mission.
the progressive liberals. · The Kaiser accepted the explanation of events
· 1913, the SPD voted for an army bill, which from the local military commander-in-chief which
would increase the size of the army by 136,000 underplayed the situation.
soldiers and officers but at a cost of a billion · The Kaiser forbade Bethmann-Hollweg to inform
marks. the Reichstag.
· Voted for the bill because ­ they didn't want to be · Bethann received a barrage of questions from
labelled as unpatriotic and the money was raised critical members of the Reichstag.
from a direct property tax. · SPD inspired protests in Alsace ­Lorraine.
Bethmann-Hollweg
General:
·
·
Bulow's successor as Chancellors.
An able administrator, he was a remarkable
Continued:
chancellor in domestic policy. · In 1911, the Imperial Insurance Code was
· 1910, tried to reform the Prussian voting system introduced, which consolidated all previous
which was warped that it was blatantly unfair. workers' insurance laws and amended and
· In the face of conservative opposition, he extended their provisions.
dropped his proposals. · Certain groups of white collar workers were
· To please the conservatives, he started the insured against sickness , old age and death by
process of seizing estates in the east which separate and simultaneous law.
belonged to Poles, with the purpose of · He introduced a constitution for Alsace-Lorraine
redistributing land to the German peasantry. in 1911 to try integrate the province more with
the rest of Germany.…read more

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Steel: Chemicals:
· In 1879 a new method of manufacturing steel · The German chemicals industry was stimulated
made possible the use of phosphoric ores in the by the demand for explosives from the military
manufacture of steel. and dyes from textile manufacturers.
· Manufactures in Germany weren't slow to take · By 1900, German companies held a virtual
advantage of this new method. worldwide monopoly over the manufacture of
· German advantage over Britain in steel was also artificial dyes.
gained through size of her companies. · 1914, Great Britain imported around 80% of its
· Growth in steel production fuelled the expansion chemical dyes from Germany.
of other industries including armaments and the · Germany led the way in pharmaceuticals.
railways.
Economic Growth.
Urbanisation:
· Rapid growth of industries old and new helped stimulate a
population boom. Agriculture:
· Better hygiene and medicine improves rates of infant morality. · Bismarck's Tariff law of 1879 had been introduced to protect
· The building of tramways meant people could escape the slum German farmers.
conditions. · Junkers benefited from high prices to their rye.
· Trolley buses were especially popular after 1901. · Significant factor for German farmers was a rapid increase in
· Real wages increased because money wages went up more domestic policy.
than prices. · Increased yield due to improvements in chemicals.
· The number of industrial workers in Germany doubled in the · Industrial production helped mechanise German farms.
period 1882 to 1907. · Imported meats from the USA was cheaper than German
· Overcrowding was a problem. meat.
· The cycle of unemployment was dictated by the cylcle of the · Harder to make large estates pay.
economy. · Debt increased.
· Germans industry flourished.…read more

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