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Major Features of science
· Replicability to demonstrate validity of observational study is to repeat the study. If the
outcome is the same as the previous study, then it affirms the truth in the original results,
especially if it done by a different researcher. In order to replicate successively…

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· The assessment of scientific work by others who are experts in the same field. The
Parliamentary Office of Science and Technology (2002) suggests that peer review
serves three main purposes
1. Allocation of research funding research is paid for by various government and charitable
bodies therefore by peer review…

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some extraneous variables, though it is a lot more difficult. Experimenter effects are
reduced as the participant is not aware of being in the study. Demand characteristics
may be present as parts of the experiment may become obvious to the participant.
· Natural experiments an experiment purely based on existing…

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number of observations made score of 0.8 or above is seen as quite reliable.
· Selfreport techniques internal reliability is a measure of how consistent something is
within itself. I.e. everything should be measuring the same thing. External reliability
measure of consistency over several different occasions, if all the conditions…

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Ethical issues
6 key ethical issues
1. Deception in a field experiment
2. Informed consent in a lab experiment
3. Confidentiality in a survey
4. Right to withdraw form any type of research study
5. Privacy in a observational study
6. Protection from harm in a psychology experiment.

Ways of…

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· Bateson (1986) need to weigh up three aspects
1. The quality of research found can be assessed by funding agency.
2. Amount of animal suffering assessed from the animals behaviour and any signs of stress.
3. The likelihood of benefit from the research.
· However the animals do not…

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determine whether the level is above or below that level therefore determining whether
it is through chance or not.
· Type 1 error when you reject the hypothesis when in fact it is true.
· Type 2 error when you accept the hypothesis when it is false.

Spearmans Rho

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precise measure as it takes in all pieces of data, however some characteristics of the
data are not expressed such as the influence of extreme values.

· Bar chart height of the bar represents the frequency, suitable for both words and
· Scattergram suitable for correlational data values.…


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