3 methods of collecting samples of participants for a study

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Random sampling
Every person in target population is given a number on equal sized of paper and
then several pieces of paper are selected at random, giving everyone a equal
chance of being selected
Strengths Weaknesses
Usually generates a representative Can result in a biased sample especially
sample if the sample is small. The sample won't
represent the target population
Usually impossible to gain access to
everyone in a target population, as some
of those selected may not be able to
take part
Volunteer sampling
Strengths Weaknesses
Generate a large sample quickly Volunteers will be different to those
who don't volunteer (they may try
harder or be subject to demand
characteristics more) so the sample will
always be biased
When researchers advertise (posters, newspaper adverts) for people to volunteer
to take part in a study
Opportunity sampling
Groups of people formed naturally, such as a class of students or people who walk
past a specific location can be asked to take part in a study.
Strengths Weaknesses
Generates a large sample quickly Low population validity- as only the
people in the opportunity will be
sampled so the study will be biased


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