Revision notes for Biology

I wrote these notes for my Biology common test revision, but it doesn't cover everything. Hope you'll find them useful.

*there may be typos coz I didn't proofread. sorry. And some pages are incomplete, especially the ones on respiration coz I didn't bother to draw arrows using the computer to show substances involved.

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  • Created by: saraht
  • Created on: 25-09-11 15:07
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Page 1

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Mineral requirement of plants
Element Form in soil Main function Deficiency symptom
Nitrogen (N) NO3- and NH4+ Synthesis of protein and Poor growth
chlorophyll Yellow leaves (appear in
older leaves first)
Phosphorus PO43- Synthesis of nucleic acids Poor growth, particularly
(P) and some proteins roots
Required in some Necrosis: purple…

Page 2

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Eventually, water is drawn from the xylem vessels by osmosis, which creates a force,
the transpiration pull, which draws water up the xylem vessel from the roots.

*Xylem has the lowest water potential, followed by cortex.
*Water lost through cuticle, stomata and lenticels
*Aids in absorption of water and minerals,…

Page 3

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Bubble potometer = measure the rate of WATER UPTAKE by leafy shoot.
Assumption: the rate of water uptake = rate of transpiration (i.e. most water
absorbed is used to compensate for water loss. However, some water is actually
retained in plant for support and some are used as reagents for…

Page 4

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Structures and functions of various parts of a flower
Flower Part Structure Function
Calyx Consists of sepals Protects flower bud
Corolla Consists of petals Protects inner parts of flower
Maybe brightly coloured to attract insects
May have nectaries that secrete nectar for insects
to feed on
May have insect guides…

Page 5

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Asexual reproduction VS Sexual reproduction in plants
Vegetative propagation Production of flowers and seeds
(asexual reproduction) (sexual reproduction)
Advantages Disadvantages
Desirable characteristics can be Unfavourable characteristics may be
retained (genetically identical) created during meiosis & fertilization
No external agents External agents required for
pollination, seed and fruit dispersal
Offspring obtain…

Page 6

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Amniotic fluid
Protects foetus against mechanical shock
Provides a stable environment
Prevent desiccation
Allows foetus to move
*umbilical vein oxygenated blood; umbilical arteries deoxygenated blood

Growth = irreversible increase in SIZE and MASS
Cell division: through mitotic cell division, the number of cells
Cell enlargement: assimilation of food substances +…

Page 7

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Growth curve
height / dry mass / size

*shape of the curve
depends on parameter

*typical sigmoid growth


: Lag phase slow growth
: Log/acceleration phase rapid growth
: Exponential phase maximum growth rate
: Deceleration phase growth rate decreases
: Stationary phase remains unchanged


Page 8

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Structure of a chloroplast Adaption to photosynthesis
Stroma Jelly like fluid Contains enzymes that catalyses photosynthetic
Thylakoid Membranous sacs with Provides a large surface area to pack chlorophyll
space inside
Large in numbers;
arranged in stacks (grana)
Grana are interconnected Allows efficient transport of photosynthetic products
with the chloroplast…

Page 9

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Aerobic respiration

C6H12O6 + 6 O2 6 CO2 + 6 H2O
1 Glycolysis (cytoplasm)

glucose 2 TP 2 pyruvate (**net gain of 2 ATP)

2 Krebs cycle (matrix)
Oxidative decarboxylation

2 pyruvate 2 acetyl-CoA (2-C)

2 acetyl-CoA + 2 oxaloacetic acid 2 TCA
2 TCA 2 oxaloacetic acid

3 Oxidative…

Page 10

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Photosynthesis VS Respiration
Respiration Photosynthesis
Site of All living cells (cytoplasm and Chloroplast-containing cells
occurrence mitochondria)
Type of Catabolism; breaks down organic Anabolism; builds up organic food
metabolism food by oxidation to release by reduction to store energy
Energy change Chemical energy in food is Light energy from the…


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