Revision notes for AQA AS Chemistry Unit 1- Atomic Structure

These are my revision notes for the first topic in AS CHEM. It summarises nicely everything you need to know and it these that I'll be using to revise for the exam in January.

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ATOMIC STRUCTURE

KEY DEFINITIONS

RELATIVE ATOMIC MASS-is the average mass of an atom taking in to account its isotopes
and their abundances compared to 1/12 of Carbon-12
RELATIVE ISOTOPIC MASS-is the mass of an isotope of an element compared to 1/12 of
Carbon-12
RELATIVE MOLECULAR MASS-is the average mass of…

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IONISATION ENERGIES

{FIRST IONISATION ENERGY EQUATION}

[X(g) X+(g) + e-]

GOING DOWN A GROUP IN THE PERIODIC TABLE

There are more filled energy levels between the nucleus and the outermost electrons.

These filled energy levels shield the outer electrons from the attractive force of the
positive nucleus. As the radius…

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MASS SPECTROMETRY
This is the process of Vaporisation, Ionisation, Acceleration, Deflection and Detection.
It is important to note that this only works for gaseous samples so that is why it is vaporised
first. Only the process has to happen in a vacuum so that the ions don't react with particles…

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Molecular Mass with.
Working out Relative Atomic Mass and Relative Molecular Mass from a mass spectrum
Ar--STEP ONE
For each peak read the % relative isotopic abundance from the y-axis and the relative
isotopic mass from x-axis. Multiply them together to get the mass for each isotope.
STEP TWO
Add…

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13 Al 2 2, 2,1
6
14 Si 2 2, 2,2
6
15 P 2 2, 2,3
6
16 S 2 2, 2,4
6
17 Cl 2 2, 2,5
6
18 Ar 2 2, 2,6
6
19 K 2 2, 2,6,- 1
6
20 Ca 2 2, 2,6,- 2
6…

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With regards to ions:
If it is a two plus ion it means that it has lost two electrons and electron configurations should show
this.
EG O2+
1S2 2S2 2P2
If it is a two negative ion it means that it has gained two electrons and electron configurations should
show…

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ATOMIC MODELS
The first model was done by john Dalton who described atoms as solid spheres and said that the
different spheres were the different elements. This was called the solid indivisible sphere model.
The next model was made by JJ Thompson in 1897 who concluded that atoms weren't solid…

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