Animal Responses revision notes

Detailed notes on the different parts of the brain, the nervous system and muscles.

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  • Created on: 01-06-11 15:42
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Animal Responses Revision Notes
The Brain
Cerebrum ­ Logical thought, decision-making, vision. Made of 2 hemispheres
connected by the Corpus Callosum
Cerebellum ­ Coordinates skeletal muscle contraction. Balance and
Medulla Oblongata ­ Involuntary processes; breathing rate and heart rate.
Meninges ­ Secrete cerebro-spinal fluid, which acts as a shock absorber and
also helps deliver nutrients into the brain.
Hypothalamus ­ Involved in homeostatic processes, such as temperature
regulation and water content.
Broca's Area ­ Found in the Cerebrum. Production of language in speaking
and writing
Wernicke's Area ­ Understanding of language (comprehension)
The Nervous System
Central Nervous System ­ Made up of the brain and the spinal cord. Mostly
made up of intermediate neurones.
Peripheral Nervous System ­ Made up of sensory and motor neurones
Cell bodies of the sensory neurones are in the Dorsal Root Ganglia. The
action potentials pass along their axons into the Central Nervous System.
Axons and dendrons enter through spinal nerves
Dorsal Root ­ Impulses move towards the spinal cord
Ventral Root ­ Impulses move away from the spinal cord
Made up of the somatic and autonomic nervous systems
Somatic Nervous System ­ All sensory neurones, and the motor neurones that
are involved in Skeletal muscle contraction.
Autonomic Nervous System ­ Internal organs (viscera). Controls smooth
muscle activity. Cell bodies of motor neurones outside the CNS in autonomic
Made up of the sympathetic and parasympathetic nervous systems.
Sympathetic Nervous System ­ Fight or flight response
Increased rate and force of heart contractions
Radial muscles contract, widening the pupil

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Vasoconstriction and decreased peristalsis, diverting blood flow to the
skeletal muscles.…read more

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ATP Hydrolysed, and energy used to break cross bridges. Myosin heads
return to original position.
5. Repeated for as long as there is a ready supply of ATP, and troponin
and tropomyosin are no longer covering the binding sites on the actin
Events at a Neuromuscular Junction:
A neuromuscular junction is where a neurone meets a muscle cell.
1. An action potential arrives, and causes Calcium ion channels to open in
the neurone. Calcium ions move into the neurone.
2.…read more


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