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Slide 1

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Resistance from the Church…read more

Slide 2

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How they opposed:
· 1933 Pastors' Emergency League Confessional Church 1934 (Niemoller + Bonhoffer).
· Churches refused to display swastika flags.
· Wanted to protect the Church's independence.
· Resisting the attempt to impose the Aryan paragraph onto the Church
· Defending orthodox Lutheran theology that was based purely on the Bible as the German
Christians wanted to remove the `Jewish' Old Testament.
· Had the support of 5,000 pastors.
· Stormtroopers were forbidden to wear uniforms during church services.
· Nazi party members were not allowed to hold any office in Churches.
· The majority of the Confessional Church's members professed their loyalty to Hitler and the Third
Nazi Reaction:
· Pastors had their salaries stopped.
· Pastors were banned from teaching in schools.
· By the end of 1937, 700 pastors were imprisoned.
· Bonhoffer was banned from speaking in public.
· Bonhoffer was arrested by the Gestapo in 1943 and was imprisoned until his execution in 1945.
· Overall the Nazi regime failed to crush the Confessional Church.…read more

Slide 3

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How they opposed:
· Bishop Galen issued a pamphlet and Easter message in 1935 opposing Rosenberg's (leading Nazi
ideologist) racial views.
· 19,000 Catholics turned up for the annual July procession to show their support for Galen.
· Galen spoke out in 1940 condemning the euthanasia programme.
· The Papal Encyclical was issued in 1937 by the Pope that was read out in most Churches, opposing
the regime.
· Concerned with protecting the independence and influence of the Church rather than mounting a
general attack.
· After Galen's speech about the euthanasia programme it led to the temporary halting of the
· Although there was disagreement resistance was partial and tame.
Nazi Reaction:
· Galen was considered too important to arrest.
· Increased repression, Catholic youth groups closed down, sex scandals involving priests were
published, crucifixes were removed from Catholic schools and eventually all Catholic schools were
converted to community schools.…read more

Slide 4

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Overall effect...
By 1939 the Nazi party had cut all its links with
organised religion.…read more


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