Slides in this set
How they opposed:
· 1933 Pastors' Emergency League Confessional Church 1934 (Niemoller + Bonhoffer).
· Churches refused to display swastika flags.
· Wanted to protect the Church's independence.
· Resisting the attempt to impose the Aryan paragraph onto the Church
· Defending orthodox Lutheran theology that was based purely on the Bible as the German
Christians wanted to remove the `Jewish' Old Testament.
· Had the support of 5,000 pastors.
· Stormtroopers were forbidden to wear uniforms during church services.
· Nazi party members were not allowed to hold any office in Churches.
· The majority of the Confessional Church's members professed their loyalty to Hitler and the Third
· Pastors had their salaries stopped.
· Pastors were banned from teaching in schools.
· By the end of 1937, 700 pastors were imprisoned.
· Bonhoffer was banned from speaking in public.
· Bonhoffer was arrested by the Gestapo in 1943 and was imprisoned until his execution in 1945.
· Overall the Nazi regime failed to crush the Confessional Church.…read more
How they opposed:
· Bishop Galen issued a pamphlet and Easter message in 1935 opposing Rosenberg's (leading Nazi
ideologist) racial views.
· 19,000 Catholics turned up for the annual July procession to show their support for Galen.
· Galen spoke out in 1940 condemning the euthanasia programme.
· The Papal Encyclical was issued in 1937 by the Pope that was read out in most Churches, opposing
· Concerned with protecting the independence and influence of the Church rather than mounting a
· After Galen's speech about the euthanasia programme it led to the temporary halting of the
· Although there was disagreement resistance was partial and tame.
· Galen was considered too important to arrest.
· Increased repression, Catholic youth groups closed down, sex scandals involving priests were
published, crucifixes were removed from Catholic schools and eventually all Catholic schools were
converted to community schools.…read more