AQA B Pscychology researchmethods

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  • Created on: 28-04-15 07:53
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AQA B Psychology ­ Research methods
Experiments
Lab- Takes place in lab conditions
+ Control, cause and effect, replication
- Ecological validity, ethical issues, demand characteristics
Field- Natural surroundings where the participants are not aware that they are in an
experiment
+ No experimenter effect, generalised to real life, cause and effect
- Less valid- extraneous variables, lack of control, ethical issues
Quasi- the IV is not manipulated by the experimenter
+ Pre-existing variables, avoid ethical issues, ecological validity
- Control, less valid- extraneous variables, consent
Methods of control
Standardisation-make things the same across all conditions
Counterbalancing- half the participants do one condition with the other half doing to
the condition then they swap
Randomisation- deciding the order or use of variables by chance
Experimental design
Repeated measure- same participants are used in each condition
+ Subject variables, less variation in conditions, fewer subjects
- Order effects, demand characteristics, different tests may be needed
Independent measures- different participants are used in each condition
+ Order effect, demand characteristics, same test
- Subject variables, more variation in conditions, more subjects
Matched pairs- different participants which are matched on one or more
characteristics
+ Same test, order effects, demand characteristics
- Never perfectly matched, time consuming, more subjects
Hypotheses
Hypotheses- a testable statement about the relationship between two variables
Experimental hypotheses- significant relationship between two variables
Null hypotheses- the IV will not have an effect on the DV and if there is it will be by
chance
Directional- predicts direction of outcome
Non-directional- doesn't predict the direction of the outcome
Sampling
Opportunity sampling- Anyone who is available
+ Quick and easy, less time consuming
- Representative, may be bias
Random sampling- everyone in the target population has an equal chance of being
chosen
+ Representative, avoids bias
- Time consuming, freak sample

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Stratified sampling- identify subgroups then chose randomly from each, in proportion
+ Representative, avoids freak sample
- Time consuming, identify key characteristics
Systematic sampling- every nth person
+ Researcher bias, representative
- Freak sample, how many people are listed
Ethics
Respect
Confidential
Informed consent
Deception
Right to withdraw
Protection from harm
Debrief
Honest and accurate
Graphs
Bar graph
Histogram
Line graph
Pie chart
Scatter grams
Normal distribution
Measures of central tendency
Mean (sum of all/amount of numbers)
Median (middle number)
Mode (most common)
Measures of…read more

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Qualitative data
Non-numerical- words or images
Used in: questionnaires and interviews with open questions, unstructured
observation, case study
+ Richness of data, realistic
- Harder to compare, objective stance
Case studies
In-depth research of a single individual or small group over a long period of time
+ Valid-real people, in-depth, change over time
- Unique, cause and effect, not reliable
Questionnaires
Asking all participants a set of questions. The questions can be opened or closed.…read more

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Extraneous variables- might become confounding variables if they aren't controlled…read more

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