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AQA B Psychology ­ Research methods
Experiments
Lab- Takes place in lab conditions
+ Control, cause and effect, replication
- Ecological validity, ethical issues, demand characteristics
Field- Natural surroundings where the participants are not aware that they are in an
experiment
+ No experimenter effect, generalised to real life, cause…

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Stratified sampling- identify subgroups then chose randomly from each, in proportion
+ Representative, avoids freak sample
- Time consuming, identify key characteristics
Systematic sampling- every nth person
+ Researcher bias, representative
- Freak sample, how many people are listed
Ethics
Respect
Confidential
Informed consent
Deception
Right to withdraw
Protection from…

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Qualitative data
Non-numerical- words or images
Used in: questionnaires and interviews with open questions, unstructured
observation, case study
+ Richness of data, realistic
- Harder to compare, objective stance

Case studies
In-depth research of a single individual or small group over a long period of time
+ Valid-real people, in-depth,…

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Extraneous variables- might become confounding variables if they aren't controlled

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