Reproduction (plants and humans)

Reproduction in humans and plants for Wjec biology by5

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Plant reproduction
Label insect and wind pollinated plant
Self-pollination Cross pollination
Results in self-fertilization Results in cross pollination
Occurs when pollen lands on the stigma of the same plant Occurs when pollen transferred to a different plant of
the same species
Preserves good genomes Greater evolutionary significance
Depends on the random assortment and crossing over in Plants have mechanisms of ensuring this. They include
meiosis Stamen and stigma flowering at different times
Stamen and stigmas different levels
Separate male and female flowers
Less genetic variation
Greater chance of two recessive alleles
o The transfer of pollen grains from the anther to the stigma
Insect Pollinated Wind pollinated
Bright colourful petals, scent and nectar Small and dully coloured. No scent and petals usually absent
Anthers within flower Anthers hanging outside the flower
Stigma within flower Large, feathery stigmas
Small quantities of sticky pollen Large quantities of smooth, small, light pollen
Process where male gamete fuses with female gamete to produce a zygote
In plant, the male gamete is contained within the pollen grain and can only reach the female
gamete with a tube nucleus

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Development of fruit and seed
After fertilisation, the development of the seed and fruit takes place
The seed develops from fertilised ovule and contains embryonic plant and a food store
The diploid zygote divides by mitosis to form embryo
o Consists of:
Plumule (Developing shoot)
Radicle (Developing root)
One or two seed leaves or cotyledons
Triploid endosperm nucleus food store to provide reserves for the developing embryo
Integuments seed coat or testa
Ovule seed
Ovary fruit
Structure of the seed
Broad bean
o Dicotelydon(Two seed…read more

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These are then transported to the growing apices of the young shoot (plumule) or young
shoot (radicle)…read more

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Sexual reproduction in Humans
Label Male reproductive system
Label Female reproductive system
Part Function
Scrotum A sack of skin to hold testicles outside body keeping at optimum
temperatue preventing sperm from overheating
Testes Produce sperm and release testoserone
Epididymis Where sperm are stored and matured
Vas Deferens Connects epidydimis to urethra
Seminal vesicle Adds nutrients. Contains sugar fructose that sperm use for energy
Prostate gland Secretes alkaline solution ­ as vagina is acidic.…read more

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Sertoli Cells
o In the walls of the seminiferous tubule
o Secrete a fluid that nourishes spermatazoa and protects them from the immune system
of the male
Groups of Interstitial Cells
o Secrete the male sex hormone
Process by which ova are produced in the ovary
Menstruation…read more

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Sexual Intercourse
Sperm travels from the seminiferous tubule to the oviduct of the female in fluid called semen
o So that fertilisation can take place
Secretes from seminal vesicle, Cowper's glands and prostate gland added to sperm to form
o Penis inserted into vagina
o Movement of penis results in ejaculation of semen into vagina
o Force of ejaculation sufficient to propel sperm through the cervix into the uterus, with
remainder deposited at the top of the vagina
o Sperm swim through the…read more

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o Difficulty conceiving naturally for reasons affecting the male, female or both parents
In the UK 1 in 6 couples trying for a baby seek medical help because of difficulty
o The complete inability to conceive a child
o Very rare
o Two main causes
Failure to ovulate
Usually associated with the absence of or irregular menstrual cycle
95% of cases treatable with Clomiphene
Blockage of fallopian tubes
Prevents passage of ovum to the site of fertilisation in the fallopian
tubes…read more


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