Reproductive cloning is the production of a new individual with the genotype of an existing one. Non-reproductive cloning supplies replacement cells whose genotype matches that of an exisiting organism.
Plant vegetative propagation is a form of natural cloning e.g. english elm trees can have their suckers removed and replanted.
Tissue Culture (Micropropagation)
Used for plants that:
- are difficult to grow from seed
- do not have a natural method of asexual reproduction
- are desirable hybrids and do not breed true
- have been genetically engineered
- Explants of tissue are taken from developing stems that have been surface sterilised.
- In aseptic conditions they are placed in a growth medium containing sucrose as energy, other nutrients such as amino acids and inorganic ions and plant hormones to stimulate mitosis
- Undifferentiated cells in the explant divide to produce a callus.
- This can be subdivided many times to increase the number of plants eventually produced.
- Small pieces are transferred to a new growth medium with plant hormones to trigger differentiation into shoots and…