Questions About Homeostasis

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Homeostasis
5 The hormone insulin is a protein. Insulin is produced in the pancreas and controls blood glucose
concentration.
5 (a) Which organ in the body monitors blood glucose concentration?
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(1 mark)
5 (b) We now know that a lack of the hormone insulin causes diabetes. In the early
twentieth century there was no known cure for diabetes.
Frederick Banting and Charles Best carried out a number of experiments on dogs.
In the first experiment they removed part of the pancreas from a healthy dog (dog A).
They ground up the pancreas tissue and injected an extract into dog B, whose pancreas had been
removed to make it diabetic. Dog B's diabetes was not cured.
Banting thought that an enzyme produced in the pancreas of dog A had digested the
hormone before it was injected.
Name the enzyme that might have been responsible for digesting the hormone.
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(1 mark)
5 (c) In the second experiment with another healthy dog, Banting and Best tied off the duct which
normally carries digestive enzymes out of the pancreas. This did not kill the dog.
5 (c) (i) The dog survived even though enzymes from the pancreas could not digest food in the
intestine.
Explain why the dog survived.
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(1 mark)
5 (c) (ii) As a result of these experiments, a method was developed to extract insulin from the
pancreas.
Insulin is used to treat humans with diabetes.
The amount of insulin injected needs to be carefully controlled.
Explain why.
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(1 mark)

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Page 2

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Evaluate the use of dogs in experiments of this type.
Remember to include a conclusion to your evaluation.
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(3 marks)
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7
4 The pancreas is involved in digestion and controlling the internal conditions of the body.
(a) Name two digestive enzymes produced by the pancreas.
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(2 marks)
(b) Diabetes may be caused by a lack of insulin.
Part of the treatment for someone with diabetes is to pay careful attention to the diet.…read more

Page 3

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Bile is produced in the liver, stored in the gall bladder, and then released into the small intestine.
(a) Explain how bile affects the digestion of food in the small intestine.
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(2 marks)
(b) Bile contains bile pigments and cholesterol.
If the diet contains too much cholesterol, some of it may form `gallstones' in the bile.
These gallstones may prevent bile from moving out of the gall bladder into the small intestine.
Bilirubin is a yellow-brown bile pigment.…read more

Page 4

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The diagram shows a section through part of the skin.
The muscle labelled X controls the flow of blood into the skin capillary. When muscle X contracts, the
flow of blood into the skin capillary is reduced.
Explain the role of muscle X in the control of body temperature.
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Page 5

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Insulin controls blood glucose concentration.
5 (a) The rate at which blood glucose concentration changes is affected by the food eaten.
In an experiment a person who does not have diabetes ate two slices of white bread.
The change in her blood glucose concentration was recorded over the next
120 minutes.
The experiment was repeated; first with two slices of brown bread and then with two slices of
wholemeal bread.…read more

Page 6

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Pancreatic-cell transplantation is a new treatment for diabetes. Insulin-making cells are taken
from up to three dead donors. The cells are kept alive before being injected into the diabetic in a
small operation. The cells soon begin to make insulin.
In one recent study 58 % of recipients of pancreatic-cell transplants no longer needed insulin
injections.
Give the advantages and disadvantages of the new treatment for diabetes compared with using
insulin injections.
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Page 7

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Diabetes is a disease in which a person's blood glucose concentration rises to higher levels than
normal.
Diabetes is caused by insufficient insulin being produced.
2 (a) (i) Which organ monitors blood glucose concentration?
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(1 mark)
2 (a) (ii) Insulin reduces the concentration of glucose in the blood.
Describe how insulin does this.
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(1 mark)
2 (b) A person with diabetes can be monitored in three ways:
Measuring the blood glucose concentration after fasting (going without food for 12 hours).…read more

Page 8

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The study of diabetic patients was carried out by an independent company.
Why is it important that the study should be independent?
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(1 mark)
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7
5 During exercise an athlete's core body temperature may rise.
5 (a) What causes this rise in core body temperature?
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(1 mark)
5 (b) During a long race one athlete did not drink any liquid. Towards the end of the race the amount
of sweat he produced began to fall.…read more

Page 9

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Suggest an explanation for the differences in core body temperature:
5 (c) (i) between 0 and 2 minutes
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(1 mark)
5 (c) (ii) between 4 and 10 minutes.
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(2 marks)
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8
3 (a) (i) Which organ in the body monitors the concentration of glucose (sugar) in the blood?
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(1 mark)
3 (a) (ii) In a healthy person, insulin prevents high levels of glucose in the blood.
How does it do this?
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Page 10

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To make insulin, cells in the pancreas need amino acids.
A small section of DNA in the pancreas cells is involved in making insulin from the amino acids.
3 (c) (i) Insulin is a hormone.
What type of substance is insulin?
Draw a ring around one answer.
Carbohydrate
Lipid
Protein
(1 mark)
3 (c) (ii) What term is used to describe the small section of DNA which controls the production of
insulin?
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Comments

Swallowtail

Looking at sample examination questions is always a useful exercise to see what can be asked.These have a sample mark scheme for students to look at when they have tackled the questions.

https://getrevising.co.uk/resources/homeostasis_answers


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