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Outline Clinical Characteristics
Type 1: Positive, added behaviours, responds well to treatment
o Hallucinations
o Experiences Of Control
o Delusions of Grandeur
o Disordered Thinking
Type 2: Negative, removed behaviours, doesn't respond well to treatment
o Alogia
o Avolition
o Affective Flattening
o Catatonic
Symptoms must be present for…

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o Ethnocentric
Keith et al ­ social class bias. 1.9% lower class, 0.9% middle class, 0.4% upper class
o Psychiatrists tend to be white middle/upper class ­ experimenter bias
o Lack of understanding of behaviours of other people leads to reliability issues.
Goldstein ­ diagnosed 199 patients with DSM3…

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Gottesman & Sheilds ­ investigating importance of genetics and environmental influences on
schizophrenia by looking at MZ and DZ twin pairs. 57 twin pairs tested by personality test,
case history, test for disordered thinking on twins and parents & self report questionnaire
and interview to test verbal behaviour. From this…

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Tardive Dyskinesic. They are more expensive than typical drugs and although have
less side effects, 2% of patients develop a fatal blood disease. (Ethical issues)
Kane et al ­ carried out a double blind to see the effectiveness of fluphenozine as a
treatment for schiz. 28 participants from a referral…

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Suggests cognitive malfunctions lead to too much stimuli being filtered into the brain which
distorts their perception of reality causing the schizophrenic symptoms, most dramatic of
which are hallucinations.
Friths model of psychosis ­ most symptoms can be explained in terms of deficits to 3
cognitive processes
o Inability to…

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o Temporal validity ­ attitudes towards mental health are different now
o Different countries ­ not ethnocentric, findings generalisable.
Labelling ­ Szasz claimed schizophrenia did not exist but was society's way of classifying
individuals who do not follow society's social norms.
Scheff ­ being diagnosed causes a stigma and creates…

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If used to living in therapeutic environment, upon release into the `real world' it is likely they
will become overwhelmed and worst case scenario go into relapse.
Cost-benefit-analysis ­ very expensive ­ if other treatments are just as effective is there any




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