Psychology Unit 4 Schizophrenia Essay Plans

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  • Created on: 24-01-13 01:07
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Outline Clinical Characteristics
Type 1: Positive, added behaviours, responds well to treatment
o Hallucinations
o Experiences Of Control
o Delusions of Grandeur
o Disordered Thinking
Type 2: Negative, removed behaviours, doesn't respond well to treatment
o Alogia
o Avolition
o Affective Flattening
o Catatonic
Symptoms must be present for 1 month continuously or periodically over 6 months
Describe issues surrounding classification including reliability and validity.
Diagnosed using 2 classification systems; ICD10 & DSM4
Similar disorders (some symptoms similar to that of bipolar, depression)
Dimensional/Categorical ­ classification should relate to the extent to which the symptoms
are experienced, not just their presence
Dual diagnosis ­ what if they have more than one disorder? Co-morbidity e.g. depression and
Differential diagnosis ­ difficulty to distinguish between schizophrenia and other separate
Diathesis Stress Model ­ predisposed to schiz but the outburst is triggered by stressful life
Rosenhan ­ being sane in insane places 1973
o 8 pps, in different mental health establishments across USA
o Hear `thud' `empty' `hollow' ­ once admitted aimed to be released
o All but 1 who were diagnosed with schiz were never detected sane by staff
o Behaviours were distorted; pacing, excessive note taking etc
o After release, Rosenhan released results. Big uproar. Hospitals as for more, find 19, none
were sent.
Rosenhan evaluation
o Very small participant size
o Low temporal validity ­ lots of changes made since then
o Ethics ­ deception,
o Ethics ­protection from harm
o Questions validity of DSM but supports reliability as all but 1 had same diagnosis?
o Not generalisable to rest of world
o Natural experiment ­ extraneous variable cannot be controlled ­ could influence findings
o Natural experiment ­ high ecological validity
Cultural bias? Harrison et al (1984) found that there was an over diagnosis of schizophrenia in
patients of West Indian origin in Bristol.
Cultural differences ­ behaviours seen as symptoms in Western Culture may be seen as
`normal' in other cultures
Kloster et al ­ positive symptoms may be more suitable for diagnosis
Mojtabi & Niccolson - 50 US psychiatrists asked to distinguish between bizarre and
non-bizarre delusions. Inter-rater reliability 0.4
o Positive correlation but a low positive
o Small sample size

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Keith et al ­ social class bias. 1.9% lower class, 0.9% middle class, 0.4% upper class
o Psychiatrists tend to be white middle/upper class ­ experimenter bias
o Lack of understanding of behaviours of other people leads to reliability issues.
Goldstein ­ diagnosed 199 patients with DSM3 (previously done with DSM2) then asked 2
psychiatrists to diagnose a random sample using only case notes with all previous history of
diagnosis removed.…read more

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Gottesman & Sheilds ­ investigating importance of genetics and environmental influences on
schizophrenia by looking at MZ and DZ twin pairs. 57 twin pairs tested by personality test,
case history, test for disordered thinking on twins and parents & self report questionnaire
and interview to test verbal behaviour.…read more

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Tardive Dyskinesic. They are more expensive than typical drugs and although have
less side effects, 2% of patients develop a fatal blood disease. (Ethical issues)
Kane et al ­ carried out a double blind to see the effectiveness of fluphenozine as a
treatment for schiz. 28 participants from a referral unit with no drug abuse randomly placed
into 3 groups (independent groups design); 2 treatment groups & 1 placebo.
FINDINGS: placebo ­ 7 relapse by 19 weeks, 7 drop outs by 21 weeks.…read more

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Suggests cognitive malfunctions lead to too much stimuli being filtered into the brain which
distorts their perception of reality causing the schizophrenic symptoms, most dramatic of
which are hallucinations.
Friths model of psychosis ­ most symptoms can be explained in terms of deficits to 3
cognitive processes
o Inability to generate willed action
o Inability to monitor willed action
o Inability to monitor the beliefs and intentions of others.
Frith found a disconnection between frontal area (actions) and rear area (perception) of the
brain.…read more

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Temporal validity ­ attitudes towards mental health are different now
o Different countries ­ not ethnocentric, findings generalisable.
Labelling ­ Szasz claimed schizophrenia did not exist but was society's way of classifying
individuals who do not follow society's social norms.…read more

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If used to living in therapeutic environment, upon release into the `real world' it is likely they
will become overwhelmed and worst case scenario go into relapse.…read more



really helpful to just have the essay plans, as it is difficult to know what to include. Thanks 


so helpful, thank you!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!

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