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Jade Elton

Behaviourist approach

1a) Outline two assumptions of the Behaviourist approach (4 marks)

One assumption is that behaviour is learned through classical conditioning, or learning by association. For
instance, Pavlov showed, through his dogs, that if two stimuli are present at the same time (e.g. food and the

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Jade Elton

Duker and Seys (2000) used aversion therapy to reduce self-injury in 12 children with severe learning
difficulties, by paring the undesirable self-harming behaviour with electric shocks, given by remote control.
The unpleasant shocks became associated with the undesirable self-harming, and it was eliminated in seven
of the twelve…

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Jade Elton

One disadvantage is the risk of demand characteristics: the participants may try to guess the purpose of the
study and change their behaviour to conform to expectations or spoil it. For example, in Bandura's study, the
children may have thought that the way the adult played with the…


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