Psychology AS - PYA2 Models of Abnormality

Currently consists of just the biological and the psychodynamic models of abnormality (can be applied to other areas of psychology, including certain aspects in A2).

I will be adding the behavioural and the cognitive models of abnormality to this presentation at some point in the future - either that or will create a new one with those two models in it.

I hope you find this helpful (I found making this quite helpful, tbh...) Please rate/comment!

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  • Created by: Polly
  • Created on: 02-01-09 23:02
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Psychology AS - PYA2
Models of Abnormality…read more

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The Biological Model
Assumes that the causes of abnormality are
Berrettini (2000)
found (using "gene-
mapping") that bi-
a) related to bodily states, i.e. polar disorder was
linked to genes on 8
genes (a predisposition to abnormality) specific chromosomes
biochemistry (certain neurotransmitters contribute to disorders, e.g. schizophrenia
(dopamine) and bi-polar disorder (serotonin))
neuroanatomy (post-mortems show that schizophrenics have enlarged ventricles)
b) inherited: we can see this by looking at concordance
Kendler et al. (1985)
Found that relatives rates ­ especially in twins if they've been reared apart
of schizophrenics are(dissimilar environmental factors).
18x more likely to be
diagnosed with {Certain genes lead to abnormal biochemistry/neuroanatomy.}
schizophrenia.…read more

Slide 3

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The Biological Model
Assumes that the treatments of
abnormality should
a) be physical (somatic) e.g.
drugs genetic
b) follow the medical model:…read more

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The Biological Model
Examples of treatment:
They treat the symptoms but do not treat the
problem. People may prefer to take them because
Gerbino et al.
Drugs taking tablets are a familiar activity, unlike other
(1978); manic- therapies. The "placebo" effect may take place.
depression is {effective, readily available, easily administered, cost-
effective, addictive, not a long-term solution; when
controlled by
treatment stops, symptoms reoccur}
lithium in 80% The Department
of patients & of Health (1999)
considerably Generally used in schizophrenics and the severely
reduces the ECT (electro-convulsive depressed, for quicker effects than drugs (in the considered 700
event of suicidal personalities) patients who
suicide rate. treatment)
received ECT: 59%
{quick, impaired memory, headaches,1/3 of patients -
memory loss, lack of consent} had not
consented to
Extreme somatic technique, used mainly before
Psychosurgery the introduction of drugs. Involved cutting of
neural tissue in the brain and was designed to
Jacobsen et al. (1935) removed change a psychological condition.
the frontal lobes of a {refined techniques, irreversible, inconsistent effects, lack of
chimpanzee called Becky, consent}
reducing her temper tantrums…read more

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The Biological Model
Practical applications: e.g. ECT has helped in 75%
of depression cases
psychologists can improve the quality of people's lives
Supporting research: Holland et al.'s study of MZ and DZ twins
­ MZ twins had a greater chance of both developing anorexia if
one had it.
abnormality can be caused by genetic factors
Reliable: all tests done on the same patient will turn out the
same results each time.
less chance of getting it wrong…read more

Slide 6

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The Biological Model
Treatment of symptoms, not causes: may lead to
symptom substitution
patients are not cured, when treatment is stopped (e.g. Drugs for depression), the
syndrome reoccurs
Mental Physical: symptoms are frequently thoughts and feelings rather
than somatic
it is wrong to think that we can treat mental illnesses in the same way as physical illnesses
­ it may prevent us from treating real psychological causes
Inconclusive evidence: e.g. Concordance rates of inherited disorders are
never 100%.
biology may be only part of the problem ­ we can't use just the biological model to treat
Cause or effect? Abnormal biochemistry may be a cause of abnormality, or
an effect from becoming mentally ill.
issues of correlational data…read more

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