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Types of conformity: Asch Original study:

Compliance: going All but one of the PPs were confederates. Child of its time- the PPs were all men and
along with others to Purpose of experiment was to see how the research was in the 1950s, a period of
gain their approval- the…

Page 2

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Difficulty: In one variation study, Asch made the differences between the line lengths
much smaller, and the level of conformity increased.
Lucas et al furthered this and found that PPS with lower confidence in their abilities
were less independent.
Situational and individual differences are important in determining conformity.
Size of…

Page 3

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Moscovichi: `'Calling a blue slide green'': Theory of Conversion:

To see if minority could influence a majority. Consistent
Commitment
PPs given eye test to check they weren't colour-
Flexible
blind.
Relevant
Then put into groups of 4 PPs and 2
confederates.
All shown 36 slides that were different shades of…

Page 4

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Social Impact Theory:

Normative social influence: Informational Influence: Number: the more people present, the more
Result of wanting to be influence on individual.
Result of wanting to be Strength: the more important the people, the
right, so you look to
liked and part of group by influence they will have.…

Page 5

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Milgram Obedience Study:

Told PPs it was about the effects of punishment on
learning.
40 male PPs.
Deception and lack of informed consent.
As well as real PP, 2 confederates.
Right to withdraw not emphasised clearly.
Each time the learner got something wrong, a shock
Realism- there is a doubt…

Page 6

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Milgram's Study: Compared to the holocaust, Milgram's PPs
were assured that although the shocks may
Gradual Commitment: As the PPs gave lower shocks,
be painful, there is no permanent damage.
becomes hard to resist experiments requirement to
Despite these differences Milgram believed
increase shock level. Gradual commitment is where you…

Page 7

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Resisting pressures to conform: Asch Resisting pressures to obey: Milgram
Role of allies: When study was moved from Yale to downtown office,
Dissident gave social support to individual, caused more people felt able to resist authority.
conformity to fall. Tells us that status is a key factor in resistance.
Shows…

Page 8

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Locus of control:
Twenge et al:
External- outcomes outside your control.
Internal- outcomes within your control. Meta analysis.
High internals perceive themselves to have a high Found young Americans believed their lives were
degree of control over their behaviour, less likely to controlled by outside forced.
obey/conform. LOC scores have…

Page 9

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Change from minority to majority may decrease satisfaction and
increase desire to leave group, e.g. South Africa, prislin et el.
Terrorism is a form of minority influence, leading to social change Blass carried out a statistical
through persistence and conformity to Zeitgeist- Kruglanski analysis of all of Milgram's
Obedience used…

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