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Biological Rhythms

Endogenous pacemakers- internal body clocks, innate, e.g. hormones (melatonin), hunger.

Exogenous zeitgebers- environmental stimuli, external, e.g. light, alarm clock.

Length Example Research
Circadian Rhythms 24 hours Sleep/wake Siffre 1975; 6 months in cave with no
cycle, body natural light, absence of zeitgebers
temperature (light) pacemakers can still…

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occurs, muscles relax/paralysed, brain
very active.
Disruptions of biological rhythms

Edison's invention of the electric light in the late 19t century freed us from dependence on natural
light and candles. People were able to work and socialise longer throughout the night, and could
sleep when they liked.

Shift Work Jet…

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Research Dement 1960; deprived subjects of Randy Gardner; 17 year old student, stayed
either REM or non-REM sleep, and awake for 11 days, effects were
compared effects of both. disorganised speech, blurred vision and
Deprivation of REM sleep was more paranoia.
severe and when allowed to sleep, Rechtschaffen et al…

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deprivation in rats appears to interfere vulnerable to predators. Fatal effects
with the immune system which may lead shown in sleep deprivation studies
to death. Face validity, restoration as a confirm that sleep in needed for
theory makes sense. Restoration theories survival.
claim that a key function of sleep is…


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