Psychology AQA Agression, Biorhythms and relationship essay plans/notes

VERY detailed

HideShow resource information
  • Created by: alex
  • Created on: 11-06-12 17:38
Preview of Psychology AQA Agression, Biorhythms and relationship essay plans/notes

First 488 words of the document:

Formation of relations
Outline and evaluate interpersonal attractive
Proximity: Helps form relationships because it increases awareness, closeness, exposure and
Evidence from BOSSARD (1932) who researched 5000 couples and found that half lived within
walking distance from each other.
FESTINGER (1950)- studied students who lived in halls of residence and found friends and couples
were more likely to live on the same floor.
Similarity: This is important in helping communication, boosting self esteem, making spending time
together more satisfying because different attitudes can cause rows.
Evidence from BUSS who found the couples usually matched according to their race, beliefs,
attitudes, smoking habits and socioeconomic background.
Physical attractiveness: We have positive stereotypes of physically attractive people therefore we
see them as good partners. `Beautiful people' are considered to be more sociable, outgoing,
intelligent, competent, sexual, happy and assertive. We gain prestige from being seen with
attractive people. We also get direct pleasure from the appearance of attractive people.
Proximity- Fairly obvious it will play an important factor in forming relationships because it
determines who we are likely to meet physically.
however- studies lack temporal validity and proximity may be less relevant in today's society
because of transport and communication technologies like Skype, texts and emails.
Similarity- ROSENBAUMS `repulsion hypothesis'- it is when people disagree with our opinions that
causes conflict- not their agreement that we like. More dissimilarity than similarity.
Physical attractiveness- Lots of research support
Physical attractiveness is more important in the early stages of the relationship- some research has
found it become less important as time passes
Margolin had different findings `matching hypothesis'- divorce and marital problems are likely when
one partner declines in physical attractiveness.
There are individual differences as some people are much worse affected than others TOWHEY-
male pps given a `macho scale quiz'- those who scored higher value physical attractiveness more.
Outline and evaluate two or more factors in to relationship formation
A01: The filter model of attraction- KERCKHOFF and DAVIS- claimed people rely on a
number of selection filters to filter potential relationships from a `field of eligible's'. This is
then narrowed down to a `field of desirables' who we then consider as potential partners.
There are a number of selection filters based on
Demographic similarity- like race, religion, education, economic and social background.
Similarity of attitudes- couples share beliefs this makes communication easier and spending
time together more pleasurable.
Complimentarily of emotional needs- determines whether the relationship is ready for a
long term commitment.
Based on a longitudinal study of student couples- asked to complete questionnaires over a 7
month period in which they reported one attitude similarity and personal traits with their

Other pages in this set

Page 2

Preview of page 2

Here's a taster:

Attitude similarity was most important until 18 months- after this emotional
complimentarily was most important.
Matching hypothesis ­ Walster proposed that rather than seeking the most physically
attractive person we are attracted to individuals who match us in terms of physical
desirability- also in other ways like intelligence and attitudes as they are our `realistic
choices'. Couples who are equally matched are more likely to be happy than mismatched
couples.…read more

Page 3

Preview of page 3

Here's a taster:

Investment model- addition of SET. Relations need to be satisfied, compared to alternatives- like
SET but RUSBULT puts an emphasis on investment. These are things that an individual puts into a
relationship which may be lost or harmed if they end it. This may include things like shared property,
children's welfare, mutual friends and emotional investments. The greater the investment- the more
likely to individuals are to maintain a relationship.…read more

Page 4

Preview of page 4

Here's a taster:

Mechanical failure- the couple just cannot live together
Sudden death- infidelity or betrayal results in instant breakdown of the relationship
He also identified four stages showing the process of relationship dissolution.
The intraphysic phases- one person is unsatisfied, dyadic stage- partner complains and
confronts partner, social phases- problems are publically visible and the grave dressing
phase- the end of the relationship is certain.
Factors can influence breakdown like early parenthood, being in a low socioeconomic group.…read more

Page 5

Preview of page 5

Here's a taster:

Cultural biases- can only be generalised to western societies not collectivist cultures- unlikely
to apply to arranged marriages. MOGHADDAM- North America relationships are
predominantly individualistic, voluntary and temporary. Non western cultures are collectivist
and relationships are obligatory and permanent. Theories cannot apply cross culturally.
Discuss the relationship between sexual selection and human
reproductive behaviour
A01: Natural selection unable to explain exuberant non adaptive characteristics. Therefore Darwin
proposed sexual selection.
Two different types of sexual selection these are, Intrasexual selection- also known as mate
competition.…read more

Page 6

Preview of page 6

Here's a taster:

A lot of research studies into physical attractiveness, reproductive behaviour and partner
Research focuses on preferences and not real life choices- therefore not an accurate
measurement of relationships- low in ecological validity
Low temporal validity- based on behaviour from years ago- less relevant in today's society.
Today women can provide for themselves and sperm banks mean do not have to be choosy
in choosing who to have sex with.…read more

Page 7

Preview of page 7

Here's a taster:

However, men can never be sure of their paternity which leads to sexual
Support: POLLETT found that maternal grandparents invest more time, love and resources
into grandchildren. He suggests this is because they are sure the child shares their genes.
BELLIS: meta analysis based on 50 years of international data. Cuckoldry rate 4% across the
world. Cuckoldry in 1/25 families ­ suggests there is a high risk
GEHER- support.…read more

Page 8

Preview of page 8

Here's a taster:

Early attachment- Bowlby's theory suggests that early attachment creates a template for
adult romantic relationships. Internal working model- relationship with the primary caregiver
provides a template for all further relationships. `Continuity hypothesis' states that if the
mother was caring then the child is more likely to have stable relationships.
Ainsworth and Bell- three types of attachment. Either secure, insecure- avoidant and
insecure- ambivalent.
HAZAN AND SHAVER `love quiz' tested the correlation between attachment types and
parenting skills/success in love during adulthood.…read more

Page 9

Preview of page 9

Here's a taster:

A way around this was the Adult Attachment Interview- looks at way pps answer rather than
how- better indicator- no demand characteristics. However, observers must be trained, time
costly and expensive to train people.
Relationships styles in adulthood vary- be in one relationship which is secure and with
another partner be insecure. Therefore attachment from childhood cannot be influencing
these attitudes otherwise partner would feel the same way in both relationships.…read more

Page 10

Preview of page 10

Here's a taster:

­ suggests romantic love in less important in non western
collectivistic cultures.
SERNBERG- love triangle- different types of love e.g. Intimacy, Passion, Commitment
FISCHER studied the existence of romantic love in 166 traditional hunting and gathering
societies. They found clear evidence of passionate romantic love in the vast majority of
society. Only in one society was there no evidence of romantic love. Concluded that all
human beings regardless of culture crave romantic love.…read more


Maggie Asbury

What kind of grades did you get with these essays? :)


I got an A*- full marks on the unit 3 exam. Hope they help


have you got any notes/ plans on Unit 4 psychology? this document is really useful :D thank you

Rachel Game

What questions came up when you did the exam?


Similar Psychology resources:

See all Psychology resources »See all resources »