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Formation of relations
Outline and evaluate interpersonal attractive

Proximity: Helps form relationships because it increases awareness, closeness, exposure and
Evidence from BOSSARD (1932) who researched 5000 couples and found that half lived within
walking distance from each other.
FESTINGER (1950)- studied students who lived in halls of residence…

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partner. Attitude similarity was most important until 18 months- after this emotional
complimentarily was most important.

Matching hypothesis ­ Walster proposed that rather than seeking the most physically
attractive person we are attracted to individuals who match us in terms of physical
desirability- also in other ways like intelligence and…

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Investment model- addition of SET. Relations need to be satisfied, compared to alternatives- like
SET but RUSBULT puts an emphasis on investment. These are things that an individual puts into a
relationship which may be lost or harmed if they end it. This may include things like shared property,

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Mechanical failure- the couple just cannot live together
Sudden death- infidelity or betrayal results in instant breakdown of the relationship

He also identified four stages showing the process of relationship dissolution.
The intraphysic phases- one person is unsatisfied, dyadic stage- partner complains and
confronts partner, social phases- problems are publically…

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Cultural biases- can only be generalised to western societies not collectivist cultures- unlikely
to apply to arranged marriages. MOGHADDAM- North America relationships are
predominantly individualistic, voluntary and temporary. Non western cultures are collectivist
and relationships are obligatory and permanent. Theories cannot apply cross culturally.

Discuss the relationship between sexual selection…

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A lot of research studies into physical attractiveness, reproductive behaviour and partner

Research focuses on preferences and not real life choices- therefore not an accurate
measurement of relationships- low in ecological validity

Low temporal validity- based on behaviour from years ago- less relevant in today's society.
Today women…

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occurs within them. However, men can never be sure of their paternity which leads to sexual

Support: POLLETT found that maternal grandparents invest more time, love and resources
into grandchildren. He suggests this is because they are sure the child shares their genes.

BELLIS: meta analysis based on 50…

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Early attachment- Bowlby's theory suggests that early attachment creates a template for
adult romantic relationships. Internal working model- relationship with the primary caregiver
provides a template for all further relationships. `Continuity hypothesis' states that if the
mother was caring then the child is more likely to have stable relationships.


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A way around this was the Adult Attachment Interview- looks at way pps answer rather than
how- better indicator- no demand characteristics. However, observers must be trained, time
costly and expensive to train people.

Relationships styles in adulthood vary- be in one relationship which is secure and with
another partner…

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love are too optimistic ­ suggests romantic love in less important in non western
collectivistic cultures.
SERNBERG- love triangle- different types of love e.g. Intimacy, Passion, Commitment

FISCHER studied the existence of romantic love in 166 traditional hunting and gathering
societies. They found clear evidence of passionate romantic love in…


Maggie Asbury


What kind of grades did you get with these essays? :)



I got an A*- full marks on the unit 3 exam. Hope they help



have you got any notes/ plans on Unit 4 psychology? this document is really useful :D thank you

Rachel Game


What questions came up when you did the exam?


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