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- Most of our behaviour is driven by unconscious motive-
behaviour= determined, we have no free will
- Behaviour is motivated by instinctive drives
- 3 parts to our personalities; the ID, EGO and
- Childhood is a critical period in development
- Mental disorders arise from unresolved unconscious
conflicts originating in childhood
- Resolution occurs through assessing and coming to
terms with repressed ideas and conflicts.
Levels on consciousness:
1) Conscious- thoughts that are currently in the mind
2) Preconscious- information and ideas that can be retrieved easily from the memory
and brought into conscious awareness
3) Unconscious- information that is very hard to bring into conscious awareness…read more

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Freud believed we have a tripartite personality:
- The ID, EGO and SUPEREGO are separate, conflicting forces
- The ego regulates the ID and the SUPEREGO
- The strength of these different factors is a factor that determines their personality e.g.
someone with a particularly strong superego may be seen as pompous or rigid.
Develops as we start to - Internal Parent
internalise the rules and
- Where our morality is based
SUPEREGO regulations of our parents.
- The little voice that comes to us when we
Knowing what is right from
wrong. are doing something wrong.
- Reflexes- no rational or logical
Pleasure principle- Freud believed that thought
ID when we are born we are driven by -Primitive desires
what he called the pleasure principle - A child wants sweets and wants them
now no matter what.
Reality principle- as we -This part works out ways of achieving what we want by waiting for
start to experience the an appropriate moment (based on our experiences)
world, we realise that we - Doesn't consider morality, but does take into account what
EGO cannot always have what others think.
we want, when we want -It's my job to maintain a state of `dynamic equilibrium between
it. the ID and the SUPEREGO.…read more

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· Mental imbalances are caused by an
imbalance of the ID, EGO and
SUPEREGO. They must be balanced for
normal behaviour and mental health
Defence mechanisms
· Freud believed that disagreements
between the ID, EGO and SUPEREGO can
lead to anxiety
· As the 3 parts are often in disagreement,
the mind develops defence
· There are different types of defence
mechanisms and they are unconscious
· Overusing our defence mechanisms may
lead to mental abnormalities…read more

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Defence mechanisms
1. DENIAL: Complete rejection of the thought or feeling
2. PROJECTION: You attribute your own socially unacceptable thought or feeling to
someone else
3. SUPPRESSION: Vaguely aware of the thought or feeling but try to hide it.
4. DISPLACEMENT: You redirect your feelings to another target
5. REGRESSION: You revert to an old, usually immature, behaviour
6. SUBLIMATION: You redirect the feeling into a socially productive activity e.g. art
7. RATIONALISATION: You try to justify uncomfortable thoughts or feeling with
socially acceptable motives
8. REACTION FORMATION: You turn the feeling into the opposite…read more

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Stage Description
Oral stage The mouth is the main focus of pleasure.
(0-15 months) The child enjoys sucking and tasting. Successful completion of this
stage is demonstrated by weaning.
Oral fixation:
Oral receptive (not allowed to suck freely): passive, needy sensitive
to rejection, overeats and drinks, bite nails, may smoke
Oral aggressive(allowed to suck too long/often: Hostile and verbally
abusive, sarcastic.
Anal stage Defecation is main source of pleasure
(1-3 years) Successful completion marked by potty training
Anal fixation
Anally retentive: very tidy, stubborn, likes order and being in control
Anally expulsive: generous but disorganised, doesn't like to follow
Phallic stage Become inquisitive as to differences between boys and girls
(3-5 years) During this stage the awareness of sex differences are the basis of the
Oedipus and Electra complexes…read more

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