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The Formation of Romantic Relationships
Reward/ Need satisfaction theory
We are attracted to people who we find satisfying or gratifying to be with.
We are motivated to seek rewarding stimuli and avoid punishing stimuli.
Operant conditioning
Rewarding stimuli produce positive feeling in us, and punishing stimuli produce negative feelings.

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(+) (Lehr and Geher) Students were given a description of a stranger with varying degrees of similarity of
the strangers attitudes to the participants. They then rated the stranger and found that participants rated the
stranger higher of they were more similar to them.
() Research on similarity has only…

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Reallife application (Rusbult and Martz, 1995) For women in abusive relationships, when investments are
high e.g. children and financial security, and alternatives are low this could still be considered a profit situation
and women might choose to stay in such a relationship.

Equity Theory
People who give a lot in…

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Reallife applications: (Cina et al., 2003) couples who had couples coping enhancement training (CCET)
had higher marital quality compared to the control group.
Gender differences: (Kassin) women are more likely to stress unhappiness and incompatibility as reasons
for breakup while men blame lack of sex. (Argyle) women identified lack of…

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Evolutionary psychologists suggest that sexual selection has created gender specific reproductive
behaviours. These can be in terms of mating preferences or mating strategies.
According to evolutionary psychology, females mating strategies involve being choosy about their partners
because females have to invest a lot of time in having and bringing up…

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Parental Investment
Maternal and Paternal Investment
Maternal investment
Maternal investment is substantial and considerably greater than that made by males. A female produces
far fewer gametes over the course of her lifetime than the male produces.
For our distant female ancestors, the minimum parental investment would have been a ninemonth…

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respondents were asked to imagine scenes of sexual or emotional infidelity the men showed much more
distress for sexual than emotional infidelity.
() (Harris, 2003) men tended to respond with greater arousal to any sexual imagery, which challenges the
view that sex differences in jealousy are an adaptive response in…

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(Epstein, 2002) Divorce rates are low for arranged marriages and in about half of them spouses have
reported that they have fallen in love with each other.
(Myers et al., 2005) No differences were found in marital satisfaction between individuals in India living in
arranged marriages, when compared to individuals…

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awesome thanks! 

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