First 432 words of the document:
Aggression `Hurting others'
2 Social Psychological Explanations. Social Learning Theory and Deindividuation.
Social Learning Theory
"Bandura and Watson" we observe by watching others and imitating, but the biological
factors have not been ignored. They are seen to create the potential for aggression.
This theory states that aggression is largely learned by watching other people behave
aggressively, either in media or by person.
Vicarious reinforcement seeing aggression being successful
Self Efficacy how good you think you are at it, if you are rewarded by friends for
getting away with it do it again. If caught don't.
The Long Arrrm of Aggression
Retention actions are remembered
Reinforcement did you get away with it
Motivation rewarded for behaviour
"Bandura" did a study on preschoolers who were all shown a short film of a person beating
up a Bobo Doll. Were in 3 groups, each group with a different ending. Group 1 person
rewarded with praise. Group 2 person punished by being telling off. Group 3 there was no
consequence. Then all groups taken into a room with a Bobo Doll. Most aggression came
from group 1 as they saw behaviour as successful, group 3 was a mixture. DUE TO
AO2: nicely controlled, very influential. Not ethical to show children that footage. Demand
Characteristics, video clip gave clues.
(+) Vicarious Learning can explain behaviour when do direct reinforcement is
(+) Explains adult learning "Phillips" boxing season USA crime rated rose
(+) can explain cultural differences "Wolfgang and Ferracuti". Culture of violence
theory, copy what exposed to.
!KungSan are against using aggression and are punished if show aggression
Explain aggression in real life?
Reductionistic, really behave just down to TV, genetic? Instinctive behaviour?
Deterministic, we all act the same way?
"Gustave Le Bon" individual changed by a crowd so loose social control (become
disinhibited) and acts against personal norms.
"Diener" children on Halloween, half asked name at door half didn't. Owner says they'll be
back. Those who had their names asked didn't steal sweets compared to those who
hadn't. Happened more in groups.
"Mullen" 60 newspaper cutting 18991946. Found the more people lynching the more
torturous the lynching.
Deterministic, in group always act in same way
Reductionistic, isn't always going to happen.
Other pages in this set
Here's a taster:
Dressing as a KKK member more likely to blast white noise than those dressed as
Pro Social acts can also happen from Deindividuation
Cultural Bias !KungSan…read more