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Slide 1

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PRESSURE GROUPS processes in the
USA…read more

Slide 2

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Seek to influence those who have control of govt ­ not to win control of govt
Operate at all levels of govt ­ federal, state and local.
Have an influence on all three branches ­ Executive, legislature and Supreme
Types: Business, agriculture, unions, professional, single issue, ideological,
group, public interest.…read more

Slide 3

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Various groups in society.
Citizen participation:
Participate in decision making process.
Public education:
Environment and gun control.
Agenda building:
Influence political agendas, attempt to bring different areas of society together in the common
Programme monitoring:
Hold govt to account.…read more

Slide 4

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Electioneering and endorsement:
PAC's ­ raise and give campaign funds to candidates, encumbents attract more PAC money, side
with candidates who are sympathetic to their cause.
Provide policy makers with information, revolving door syndrome.
Television ad's, journal ad's, roadside hoardings, bumper stickers, Bush and Obama have
experienced publicity blitzes against their flagship policies.
Grassroots activities:
Postal blitz on Congress, marches and demonstrations.…read more

Slide 5

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USA = Diverse society:
Melting pot, variety of special interests to represent, hyphenated society each with their
own pressure group.
Many access points:
Shared powers make this possible, even congress isn't a single access point itself ­ two
chambers and many committee rooms.
Weakness of political parties (Decentralised and undisciplined):
Citizens turn to pressure groups, often opposing parties controlling WH and Congress ­
pressure groups can over come this divide to get issues dealt with (Doesn't matter for the
pressure group who's where).…read more

Slide 6

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Seek to influence how Congressmen vote:
Direct contact ­ member or staff/Committee staff or members.
PG can provide evidence to committee to support their view.
Organise constituents to contact their representative (email, letter, phone) ­ express support or
opposition for initiative.
Publicise voting records ­ so that members are sure to vote along the lines of their constituents.
PG can endorse member or oppose them in upcoming elections.
Fundraising, campaigning for the member ­ seek to defeat those who oppose them.
EMILY'S list fundraises and campaigns for female members.
Sig piece of legislation for vote in Congress = PG will launch media campaign to generate public
support favourable to their position.…read more

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Slide 10

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