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Plate Tectonics and Associated Hazards

Earth Structure:
Earth is split into 3 layers: The crust, the mantle and the core
.
Core: made of dense rocks containing iron and nickel alloys
Divided into solid inner core and a molten outer core
Over 5,000 degrees
Mantle: Molten and semimolten rocks containing…

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Plate Movement:

Theory of Plate Tectonics: (Alfred Wegener 1912)
300 million years ago a single continent existed ­ called Pangaea
Later Split into two continents ­ Laurasia in North and Gondwanaland in the South
Today's continents were formed by further splitting of these two

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Evidence that these areas were once joined
Geological Evidence:
continents seem to fit together well ­ Bulge of South America fitting into the indent
below west Africa
Evidence of glaciations of late Carboniferous period with deposits found in South
America, Antarctica and India ­ suggests they were formed together and…

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Examination of the ocean crust on either side of the midAtlantic ridge suggested
seafloorspreading was occurring ­ shown by alternating polarity of the rock that form the
crust
Lava particles in lava erupted on the ocean floor are aligned with the Earth's magnetic
field. As the lava solidifies the particles…

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