Plate Tectonics and Associated Hazards Features of Plate margins: - with pictures, very detailed

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Plate Tectonics and Associated Hazards
Features of Plate margins:
Constructive (Divergent) Margins: Where plates move apart
Oceanic areas: Produce Oceanic ridges e.g. midAtlantic ridge
Longest continuous uplifted feature on the planet
Volcanic Activity: Submarine volcanoes that sometimes rise above sea level, e.g. Surtsey,
Iceland. They are fairly gentle with low viscosity basaltic lava and frequent but gentle
eruptions
Seismic Activity: Transform faults occur at right angles to the boundary as crust forms and
spreads. Differing speeds of plate movement on either side of these faults results ot friction
and shallow ­ focus earthquakes.
Continental areas: Rift Valleys
Crust fractures as sections move apart. Areas of crust drop between parallel faults to form
rift valleys e.g. African Rift Valley
Volcanic Activity: highest Mountain in Africa Mt Kilimanjaro
Crust here is thin ­ suggesting tension in the lithosphere causing it to thin as it starts to spilt.
Thought to be an emergent plate boundary and the formation of a new ocean as eastern
Africa splits from the rest of the continent.
Destructive (convergent) margins: Two plates move towards each other

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There are 3 types of different convergent situations.…read more

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Continental/continental convergence
Two plates meeting at as they're lower density than the underlying layers there isn't much
subduction so the sediments between them are forced up into fold mountains
Features:
Fold mountains
No Volcanic activity sue to no subduction
Shallow focus earthquakes
Deep mountain roots
Examples: IndoAustralian plate being forced northwards into the Eurasian plate, having
pushed up the Sea of Tethys and it's sediments into folds forming the Himalayas and Mt
Everest
Conservative Margin:
Two crustal plates slide past each other and the movement…read more

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