Plate Tectonics and Associated Hazards Extrusive Volcanic Landforms - detailed with pictures including volcano types

gysers

bioling mud

fumaroles 

volcanoes

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  • Created on: 11-09-12 00:17
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Plate Tectonics and Associated Hazards
Extrusive Volcanic Landforms
Minor Extrusive Activity
Geysers:
Hot water that fills underground cavities, upon further heating, is violently ejected when it
flashes into steam
E.g. Old Faithful Geyser in Yellowstone National park which erupts about every 65 minutes
Hot Springs:
Sometimes the water, heated below by hot rock, does not explode into the surface
E.g In Bath
Boiling Mud:
Hot Springs mixed with surface deposits and mud near the surface, mix to form boiling mud
E.g In Iceland
Fumaroles:
Areas where superheated water turns to steam and mixes with gases as it condenses on the
surface
Solfatara:
Fumaroles that emit mainly sulphurus gases
E.g. the Bay of Naples, Italy
Major Extrusive Activity:
Involves two Forms of Lava
Basaltic Lava:
magma low in silica
fluid magma that allows gas bubble to expand on the way to the surface preventing
sudden explosive activity

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Andesitic and Rhyolitic Lavas:
Silicarich acid magma
Very viscous
solidifies before reaching the surface, leading to a buid up of pressure and a violent
explosion
Main Extrusive Volcanic Landforms:
Lava plateaux:
formed from Fissure eruptions
extensive lava flows that's are basaltic in nature ­ flow great distances
generally flat and featureless
E.g. Antrim lava plateau in Northern Ireland
Basic/shield volcanoes:
Formed from free flowing lava
Gentle sides and cover a large area
Found at hot spots and oceanic/oceanic convergences
E.g.…read more

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Calderas:
Occur when the buildup of gases become extreme and a huge explosion removes the
summit of the cone leaving a huge opening several km in diameter
Later eruptions may form small cones within them
Destructive margins
Often fill with water to form a lake E.g. Crater Lake in the US
Or if below sea level a lagoon
E.g.…read more

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