Physics P7 Notes Completed + Highlighted (Excess)

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Preview of Physics P7 Notes Completed + Highlighted (Excess)

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P7 Notes 1
P7 Further Physics
OCR 21st Century: 2011 specification
Made by Nabilah Chowdhury
References: OCR 21st Century Further Sciences Book, CGP: OCR 21st century + various internet sources
Topic 1: Naked eye astronomy
Brief intro 09/06/13
Astrolabe ­ measures the angle of a star above the horizon. Used for navigation.
Eclipse ­ the sun moves behind the moon (allows you to observe gasses in the corona)
The sun rises at the east and sets in the west, at a steady speed.
Stars rotate in the sky, directly above the Earth's poles.
What can we see in the sky? 1A
People thought Earth was centre of universe b/c sun, moon, and stars seemed to revolve around it.
Nabilah Chowdhury, 11Ra Mr Brosnan & Mr Bhatt

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P7 Notes 2
But the Earth is tilted ­ spins on its axis. It is the Earth that spins, NOT the stars.
Moon reappears around Earth every 25hrs.
Moon takes 28 days to make an orbit the Earth
Earth travels around sun every 24hrs
Earth orbits Earth in 365 days.
Sun = East to West Moon = West to East
Phases of the moon
The moon reflects light.…read more

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P7 Notes 3
Retrograde Motion 1B
Planets orbit the sun at different speeds but in the same direction.
Planets further = wider orbits = slowest more days to orbit
Planets closer = smaller orbits = fastest fewer days to orbit
With the naked eye, at dawn you can see some planets (e.g. mercury, Jupiter) at dawn / dusk because they move
down towards Earth during their orbit.…read more

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P7 Notes 4
Interpreting graphs
Travel east R.A increases
Travel west R.A decreases
The travels east again R.A increases
Eclipses 1C
Angular size ­ depends on object size + distance away.
Solar eclipse ­ the moon is at the right size and distance to block the sun's light
Angular size of moon ­ 0.5 degrees
Some parts of Earth have total solar eclipse and are pulled into umbra (total darkness).
Other parts have a partial solar eclipse and are pulled into penumbra (partial darkness).…read more

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P7 Notes 5
Why the rarity of eclipses?
The moon orbits the Earth at an angle (5 degrees) to the Earth's orbit of the sun.
Total eclipses only occur when the moon and earth + moon and sun line up perfectly.
Partial eclipses happen more often b/c they don't line up properly.
The moon's orbit around the Earth is longer than the Earth's orbit
around the sun.…read more

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P7 Notes 6
Same patch of sky
The Earth is rotating in a circular orbit. This means that the direction we are facing at slightly changes as the Earth
rotates. It takes a year for the Earth to make a complete orbit of the sun. On the same day after one year you can see
the same patch of sky and stars.
Celestial Sphere
Pole star is in a fixed position b/cit is directly above the North
Pole.…read more

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P7 Notes 7
Topic 2: Telescopes and images
Brief intro 02/06/13
The shadows of the moon are sometimes smooth or rough- this was due to mountains challenged views of perfect
and unchanging heavens.…read more

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P7 Notes 8
The sun's image
The sun is a star. Stars are very far away and thus they
are point sources (spots of light) on the screen.
The image will get fainter if the object is further away,
because fewer point sources reach the screen.
If the light rays stretch, the image also stretches
bigger image
How do lenses work? 2C
1. Light rays enter the lens
2. Light rays refract (bend) and change direction
Principal axis does not refract
3.…read more

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P7 Notes 9
Parallel rays that are at an angle to the principle axis converge to one side of the principal focus.
The image will form between the two F.P's.…read more

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P7 Notes 10
Not at 90 degree angle
If the wave hits the medium at an angle/boundary that isn't 90
degrees, only one part of the wave will hit the boundary first and
slow down, whilst the other part will carry on at a faster speed for
a while. Because they are travelling at different speeds, the wave
gets slightly bent on one side. Soon the rest of the wave follows
the bending. This is a refracted wave.
Applying wave theory to lenses
1.…read more


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