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P7 Notes 1

P7 Further Physics
OCR 21st Century: 2011 specification
Made by Nabilah Chowdhury


References: OCR 21st Century Further Sciences Book, CGP: OCR 21st century + various internet sources

Topic 1: Naked eye astronomy
Brief intro 09/06/13

Astrolabe ­ measures the angle of a star above the horizon.…

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P7 Notes 2

But the Earth is tilted ­ spins on its axis. It is the Earth that spins, NOT the stars.

Moon reappears around Earth every 25hrs.
Moon takes 28 days to make an orbit the Earth
Earth travels around sun every 24hrs
Earth orbits Earth in 365 days.…

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P7 Notes 3

Retrograde Motion 1B
Planets orbit the sun at different speeds but in the same direction.
Planets further = wider orbits = slowest more days to orbit
Planets closer = smaller orbits = fastest fewer days to orbit

With the naked eye, at dawn you can see some…

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P7 Notes 4

Interpreting graphs
Travel east R.A increases
Travel west R.A decreases
The travels east again R.A increases

Eclipses 1C
Angular size ­ depends on object size + distance away.

Solar eclipse ­ the moon is at the right size and distance to block the sun's light
Angular size…

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P7 Notes 5

Why the rarity of eclipses?

The moon orbits the Earth at an angle (5 degrees) to the Earth's orbit of the sun.
Total eclipses only occur when the moon and earth + moon and sun line up perfectly.
Partial eclipses happen more often b/c they don't line…

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P7 Notes 6

Same patch of sky

The Earth is rotating in a circular orbit. This means that the direction we are facing at slightly changes as the Earth
rotates. It takes a year for the Earth to make a complete orbit of the sun. On the same day after…

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P7 Notes 7

Topic 2: Telescopes and images
Brief intro 02/06/13

The shadows of the moon are sometimes smooth or rough- this was due to mountains challenged views of perfect
and unchanging heavens.

Use telescopes to study electromagnetic from distant objects data collected led to new discoveries

Optical telescopes use…

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P7 Notes 8

The sun's image
The sun is a star. Stars are very far away and thus they
are point sources (spots of light) on the screen.

The image will get fainter if the object is further away,
because fewer point sources reach the screen.

If the light rays…

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P7 Notes 9

Parallel rays that are at an angle to the principle axis converge to one side of the principal focus.
The image will form between the two F.P's.

Converging and diverging
Real ­ It can be formed on the screen because light rays converge after refraction
Virtual-It cannot…

Page 10

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P7 Notes 10

Not at 90 degree angle

If the wave hits the medium at an angle/boundary that isn't 90
degrees, only one part of the wave will hit the boundary first and
slow down, whilst the other part will carry on at a faster speed for
a while. Because…


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