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Psychological methods of stress management
Problem focussed coping
Tackles the source of stress- the situation itself
The use of specific psychological interventions that can train individuals to
respond differently to stress.
Psychological methods refer to processes in the mind.
Cognitive behavioural therapy
Combination of cognitive and behavioural approach
Cognitive change how you think about a situation
Behaviour aims to help you learn/relearn a set of desirable behaviours.
Stress inoculation training (sit) is an example of Cognitive-behavioural
We can't always change the source of stress but we CAN change how we think about
Helps individuals develop a form of coping before a problem arises.
Suggested people could inoculate themselves against stress in the same way
as you can be inoculated against disease.
Three stages of SIT
Stage 1 Conceptualisation Therapist develop relationship so will open up.
The client is then taught how to view stressors as a problem to be solved as oppose
to no control. Stressors are then broken down to elements that can be practically
tackled. The client will then be told to re-appraise the situations.
Stage 2 skills acquisition phase Clients practice coping skills relaxation,
social support, rephrases negative thoughts. These are then practiced in real life.
Stage 3 application phase Opportunities are given to apply the new skills
that they learnt in stage 2. Varieties of situations are used, becoming increasingly
stressful. Imagery modelling and role play are used and booster sessions are then
offered later on.
Linked with improved performance in many sports.
Real life applications demonstrate that SIT is effective.
SIT requires a lot of time and effort.
The three C's of hardiness training Control, see a Challenge, Commitment to
Salvator Maddi founded hardiness. The aim was to increase self confidence
and self control so that individuals could successfully navigate challenge. The
hardiness training has three areas.
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Stage 1 Focussing recognising physiological symptoms and identify the
source of stress.
Stage 2 Reliving stress encounters Helps them to analyse, gives insight
into coping strategies.
Stage 3 Self improvement insights gained can be used, new techniques
are learnt, stressors are seen as challenges to be tackled.
Hardiness training has been used on college students, helped to be successful
by mastering the stress that's been causing them to drop out.
Used by Olympic swimmers.…read more