Philosophy of Religion Revision AS


  • The origins of western philosophy - Plato (allegory of the cave, theory of the forms) and Aristotle (the 4 causes, Prime Mover)
  • arguments for the existence of God (teleological, ontological, cosmological)
  • Kant's moral argument
  • God's goodness and the Euthyphro dilemma
  • Problem of Evil (Augustinian and Irenaean Theodicies, process theodicy, responses)
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  • Created by: Morag
  • Created on: 29-04-13 13:14

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Theology Revision

Plato lived in Athens in the 5th and 4th Centuries BC
He was the student of Socrates and teacher of Aristotle
He was a dualist- believed in the body and the soul
He believed the soul was more perfect than the body
He believed that societies should…

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384-322 BC
Aristotle was an empiricist philosopher, devoted to deepening humanity's understanding of
the world based on experience
Aristotle rejects Plato's theory of the forms
Aristotle was not a dualist- rejects Plato's understanding of the soul

The four causes
Once all the four causes have been established, the complete explanation…

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Aristotle believed that man's purpose was to live in accordance with their nature- to be
rational, acquire knowledge, make good decisions, love a morally good life and achieve
eudemonia- a state of goodness and happiness which can be achieved in the physical world

The prime mover and the Christian God…

Page 4

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God is seen as a personality, reacting to people and caring about the way they behave

The language of God's goodness
Aquinas stated that there were two types of language that can be used to describe God and
goodness and he dismissed both of these
Univocal language
Language meaning exactly…

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He uses the example of a perfect island, he argues that just because he can imagine an island
with golden beaches and palm trees etc., it doesn't mean they exist
Anselm's developments
States that there is a difference between islands and God- islands are physical and
contingent whereas God is…

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Denied that existence is a predicate, claiming that it only has a propositional function; it
asserts that there are beings that answer to that description, but adds no further information
about them.
As it is a'priori it lacks evidence
It is a leap too far from existence in the…

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If things CAN not exist then there must have been a time when they didn't exist and
therefore a time when nothing existed
Things exist now so there must be something on which we all depend which brought us into
This necessary being we call God

Page 8

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The analogy leads to a non-moral God- the design is imperfect (evil and suffering)
The world appears organised but could still be down to a cosmic accident
`the analogy leads to a non-moral God because there is too much suffering in the world'
It is difficult to say that…

Page 9

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After the fall, the harmony god had created between humans and the animal/natural
kingdom was destroyed, the relationships between humans tarnished. The world was no
longer as god intended it to be
Humans still suffer from the effects of the fall. Original sin, which we are all born with, is…

Page 10

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Without evil we would be ungrateful. Suffering strengthens one and teaches
the value of good when it comes
We cannot know god's intentions- he is omniscient and knows what is best,
we must trust his plan
o Hell, like evil, is not intentionally created by god to make us suffer,…




oh my goodness gracious, you are an absolute star, this has completely changed my understanding on philosophy and i am bound to get 70/70 now. Tah

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