Philosophy Dictionary

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  • Created on: 07-04-13 10:42
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Philosophy Dictionary
Why Do We Value Art?
Artistic truth The presentation of insight and revelation of important truths. I.e. we need
to look beyond the concrete and physical to how ides and themes are represented.
Coherence A proposition is judged true and only true if that proposition fits in with the
set of propositions we already hold.
Correspondence A proposition is deemed true if and only if the proposition
corresponds to the state of the universe (e.g. It's raining)
EROS Experience of resmblance in outline and shape. (Hopkins) Art produces the
same kind of experience as encountering reality.
Expressionism The theory that we value art because it expresses emotion.
Imitation theory States that we value art because it is an accurate likeness of the
world. (Plato and Aristotle)
Institutional theory Opposite reaction to imitation theory. Value of art is decided by a
loosely constructed social institution called the "art world".
Necessary condition P is a prerequisite for q. E.g it is necessary for women to be
Significant form The value of a work of art is based on certain formal qualities
exhibited by it. (Kant, Bell)
Sufficient condition P gaurantees q. E.g. too much lager is a sufficient condition for
beng drunk, but not necessary because I could get drunk by drinking too much beer or
How do we gain knowledge?
A posteriori knowledge propositions that can only be established through experience.
A priori knowledge Knowledge of propositions that don't require experience to be
known to be true. E.g. All bachelors are unmarried.
Basic belief noninferentially justified belief. E.g. alll bachelors are unmarried men.
Belief A proposition we think accurately represents how things are in the world. E.g.
Snow is white.
Coherentism The view that beliefs are justified if they cohere with other beliefs.
Condillac's statue Condillac used a statue to describe a Tabula rasa. The statue is
inwardly organised like a man, but with a soul devoid of ideas.
Contingent truth A truth is contingently true if it is true in at least one possible world,
and false in at least one possible world.
Deductive argument The premises gaurantee the conclusion.
Experience Comes from the words "ex+peritus" Ex = out of or from. Peritus = to test

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What we learn from the 5 senses is from experience.
Foundationalism The theory that beliefs are ultimately inferred from basic beliefs.
2 Fountains of knowledge 1st is sensation in which we come by the ideas like yellow,
white, heat, cold, sweet, bitter etc. 2nd is reflection from which experience furnishes the
understanding with ideas perception of the operation of our own minds within us.
Homunculus fallacy The theory that there is a little person in your head carrying out
acts like interpreting sense data.…read more


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