PAST PAPER PHILOSOPHY helpful Mark Schemes

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Explain and illustrate two differences between primary and secondary
qualities. (15 marks)
Primary
quali+es
exist
independently
of
our
percep+ons
of
them.
They
belong
to
the
object
itself.
Secondary
quali+es
depend
for
their
existence
on
a
rela+on
between
the
object
and
us.
·
Primary
quali+es
are
objec+ve
and
can
be
measured
mathema+cally.
Secondary
quali+es
are
subjec+ve
and
not
quan+fiable
in
the
same
objec+ve
way.
Primary
quali+es
tend
to
be
accessible
to
more
than
one
sense.
·
Locke­type
dis+nc+on
regarding
causal
powers
of
primary
quali+es.
They
cause
us
to
experience
the
secondary
quali+es
which
are
effects
in
us.
Inherent
causal
powers
are
a
property
of
the
primary
quali+es.
·
Primary
quali+es
are
the
subject-maGer
of
physics'
and
chemistry's
aGempt
to
give
an
objec+ve
account
of
what
the
world
is
like.
Secondary
quali+es
are
inessen+al
for
this
purpose.
A
truly
objec+ve
account
of
reality
would
omit
secondary
quali+es.
·
Illustra(ons
of
primary
quali(es
may
include:
size,
shape,
mass,
density,
temperature.
Secondary
quali(es:
colour,
texture,
taste,
smell,
sounds
(as
opposed
to
sound
waves),
felt
temperature
(e.g.
wind
chill
factor).
The
best
way
to
understand
the
dis+nc+on
between
primary
and
secondary
quali+es
is
in
terms
of
explana+on.
Whenever
you
have
the
sensa+on
of
a
square
book
the
cause
of
that
sensa+on
is
some
sort
of
shape
out
in
the
world
(though
not
necessarily
squareness,
since
there
may
be
some
op+cal
illusion,
because
distance,
for
instance,
forcing
you
to
perceive
the
shape
incorrectly),
so
the
explana+on
for
sensa+on
of
shape
is
shape
in
the
external
world.
Whenever
you
have
a
sensa+on
of
blue,
on
the
other
hand,
the
cause
is
not
blueness
out
in
the
world.
The
cause
is
some
specific
arrangement
of
the
insensible
parts
of
maGer.
Explana+ons
for
secondary
quali+es
refer
only
to
primary
quali+es.

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Page 2

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Explain and illustrate two criticisms of idealism
- (15 marks)
Idealism
is
the
view
that
physical
objects
be
regarded
as
collec+ons
of
ideas/sense-data.
Expect
references
to
Berkeley.
Candidates
that
briefly
outline
idealism
should
be
rewarded
where
this
outline
func+ons
as
a
plaSorm
for
enhancing
the
quality
of
the
response.
·
The
problem
of
explaining
unperceived
objects.
Do
objects
cease
to
exist
without
the
perceiver?
References
to
Russell's
hungry
cat
and
whether
idealism
is
the
inference
to
the
best
explana+on.…read more

Page 3

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Sense data theories cause more problems than they solve.'
Assess whether this claim can be justified. (30 marks)
·
A
grasp
of
the
key
terms,
sense-data
and
a
theory
in
which
it
·
We
could
not
describe
something
as
a
representa+on
if
all
we
had
were
plays
a
role.
There
might
representa+ons.
be
some
historical
reference:
Descartes,
Galileo,
Locke,
·
Arguments
from
illusion
commit
the
fallacy
of
the
reifica+on
of
appearances.…read more

Page 4

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Explain and illustrate two reasons for regarding form as
important in judging a work of art. (15 marks)
It
helps
us
to
concentrate/focus
aGen+on
on
quali+es
within
a
work
of
art.
Balance,
symmetry,
coherence,
order,
structure,
harmony
and
propor(on
may
be
used
to
illustrate.
·
Form
can
be
realised
differently
in
different
arts
but
it
is
the
common
feature
which
unifies
the
work
and
makes
it
art.
Illustra+ons
from
various
fields
might
feature:
poetry,
music,
pain+ng
etc.…read more

Page 5

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We value art because of the information it conveys.' Assess
the validity of this claim. (30 marks)
·
Historical
informa+on
is
useful
­
but
to
historians.
AO1
·
Priority
of
aesthe+c
judgements
should
be
in
the
direc+on
of
the
mode
of
·
There
should
be
a
grasp
of
what
could
be
meant
by
presenta+on
rather
than
the
informa+on
itself.
`informa+on'.…read more

Page 6

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Explain and illustrate one argument for distinguishing between
primary and secondary qualities.
·
Primary
quali+es
(eg
size,
shape,
mass,
density,
mo+on/rest)
are
mind-independent
proper+es
that
belong
to
the
object
itself.
Secondary
quali+es
are
the
sensible
quali+es
aGributed
to
the
object
(eg
colour,
smell,
sound,
texture,
taste)
and
depend
upon
our
perceiving.
·
Primary
quali+es
are
objec+ve
proper+es
studied
by
science
and
quan+fiable,
whereas
secondary
quali+es
are
subjec+ve
non-measurable
characteris+cs.…read more

Page 7

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Consider whether the strengths of idealism
outweigh the weaknesses. (30 marks)
Possible
strengths:
·
Objects
really
are
as
they
appear,
so
idealism
reflects
common
sense.
·
No
need
to
propose
an
unobservable
mind-independent
reality
and
so
idealism
avoids
having
to
explain
how
we
come
to
know
.maGer.
and
how
it
operates.
·
Idealism
is
ontologically
economical
(cf
Occam.s
razor).
·
Focus
on
.coherence
with
other
observa+ons.
reflects
actual
prac+ce.
·
God
is
centre
stage
.
epistemologically
and
ontologically
.…read more

Page 8

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Explain and illustrate the notion of .form. in relation to
works of art. (15 marks)
·
Focusing
on
form
draws
aGen+on
to
quali+es
within
an
art
work,
such
as
balance,
propor+on,
structure,
harmony,
symmetry,
unity,
wholeness,
coherence.
Form
focuses
on
the
rela+ons
and
orderings
that
hold
between
different
elements
comprising
the
work.
·
Although
different
kinds
of
art
work
(eg
music,
drama,
photography)
realise
form
in
different
ways,
form
is
the
common
denominator
that
qualifies
art
as
art
.
it
is
the
essence
of
art.…read more

Page 9

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We value art because it expresses the artist.s feelings.. Consider what can be said
both for and against this view. (30 marks)
Against:
For:
·
It
is
not
obvious
that
all
the
art
we
value
is
emo+onally
expressive.
·
When
evalua+ng
art
we
oden
·
The
evalua+on
of
art
should
restrict
itself
to
focusing
on
the
artwork
itself
and
its
intrinsic
aesthe+c
quality
(eg
formalism).
consider
whether
it
is
asincere,
·
Even
if
some
works
of
art
are
best
understood
as
expressions
of
authen+c.…read more

Page 10

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Explain and illustrate two the following arguments for the existence
of sense-data:
· illusion
· perceptual variation
· the time-lag argument
· scientific descriptions of reality. (15 marks)
An+cipate
the
following
kind
of
explana+on:
In
percep+on
I
see,
taste,
smell,
feel
or
hear
something.
That
sensed
something
is
not
necessarily
a
physical
object
or
a
property
of
a
physical
object,
as
I
am
liable
to
misperceive
or
misrepresent.…read more

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