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Chapter 1 ­ Base Physics! 4
Base units:! 4
Derived units:! 4
Prefixes:! 4
Chapter 2 ­ Particles! 5
The Atom:! 5
Specific charge:! 5
Strong nuclear force:! 5
Unstable nuclei:! 5
Alpha decay:! 5
­ decay:! 5
Photons ­ particles of light:! 6
Antimatter:! 6
Annihilation:! 6
Pair production:! 7
Quarks:! 7
Hadrons:! 7
Leptons:! 7
Properties of quarks and leptons:! 7
Fundamental forces:! 8
Exchange particles:! 8
Feynman Diagrams:! 9
Weak interaction Feynman diagrams:! 9
Chapter 3 ­ Quantum Phenomena! 11
Photoelectric effect:!…read more

Page 3

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Fluorescent tubes:! 13
NB:! 13
Chapter 4 ­ Electricity! 14
Current and charge:! 14
EMF and potential difference:! 14
Circuit rules:! 14
Variation of current and potential difference:! 14
Resistivity:! 15
Resistivity of metals and superconductors:! 15
Superconductors:! 16
Resistors in series and parallel:! 16
Electrical energy and power:! 16
Internal Resistance:! 17
Potential Dividers:! 17
Potentiometer:! 17
Alternating currents:! 17
Root mean square values:! 18
The oscilloscope:! 18…read more

Page 4

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Chapter 1 ­ Base Physics
Chapter 1 ­ Base Physics
Base units:
· International system of units (SI system) is based on 7 fundamental units:
Basic Quantity Unit Symbol
Mass Kilogram kg
Length Metre m
Time Second s
Electric current Ampere A
Temperature Kelvin K
Amount of substance Mole mol
Luminous intensity Candela cd
Derived units:
· Some common derived units:
Derived Unit Measures Derivation SI system derivation
Joule (J) Energy or work N·m kg·m2·s-2
Watt (W) Power J/s kg·m2·s-3
Coulomb (C) Electric charge A·s…read more

Page 5

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Chapter 2 ­ Particles
Chapter 2 ­ Particles
The Atom:
· Protons and neutrons are referred to as nucleons.
Particle Relative mass Relative Charge Mass / kg Charge / C
Proton 1 +1 +1.67 x 10-16
1.67 x 10-27
Neutron 1 0 0
Electron 0.00005 -1 9.11 x 10-31 -1.67 x 10-16
· Isotopes are atoms of the same element ­ so same no. of protons ­ but with differing no.s of neutrons.
Specific charge:
· Charged particles are deflected in electric or magnetic fields.…read more

Page 6

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Chapter 2 ­ Particles
· It is also found that the range of energies released in ­ decay can only be explained if another particle is emitted
in addition to the electron. This particle has no charge and negligible mass (hence very hard to detect). It is called
the antineutrino, e.
· So...…read more

Page 7

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Chapter 2 ­ Particles
Pair production:
· Pair production is the opposite process to annihilation i.e. the creation of a particle and an antiparticle usually
from the energy of a proton.
· E.g. e­ + e+
· This is only possible if the photon has sufficient energy to provide at least the rest mass/energies of the 2
particles i.e. in this case, the gamma ray photon must have an energy exceeding twice the rest energy of an
electron, so greater than 1.022 MeV.…read more

Page 8

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Chapter 2 ­ Particles
· Baryon number:
· All quarks have a baryon no. of + and all antiquarks of -.
· Therefore:
· All baryons have baryon number +1.
· All anti-baryons have baryon no. -1.
· All mesons have baryon no. 0.
· All leptons have baryon no. 0.
· Baryon number is conserved in all interactions.
· Lepton number:
· All leptons have a lepton no. +1.
· All anti-leptons have lepton no. -1.
· All hadrons have lepton no. 0.…read more

Page 9

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Chapter 2 ­ Particles
Feynman Diagrams:
· Richard Feynman devised a shorthand way of describing particle interactions called Feynman diagrams.
· Particles are represented by straight lines with arrows on. The precise directions of the lines are not significant
and do not show the directions of the particles.
· Exchange particles are represented by wavy lines with no arrows.
· The "time axis" usually points upwards.
· Each point at which lines come together are called vertices.…read more

Page 10

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Chapter 2 ­ Particles
· Electron capture:
· One of the innermost electrons in an atom travels very close to the nucleus and interacts with a proton by the
weak force.
· e.g. 3718Ar + 0-1e­ 3717Cl + 00ve
· i.e. p + e­ n + ve
· The electron is effectively captured by the proton to form a neutron.…read more

Comments

Ryan.P

Hey these are really! :D Do you have any for Unit 2? 

Narghas

wow!!!! Do you have unit 2 ?

Agne

These are really good!! Do you have any Unit 2 notes

Miss Meera J

UNIT 2 PLS !!!!!!!

GINGERNINJAtjm

These are perfect, if you have any for unit 2, please upload. Because, as I said, these are perfect!!!!

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