Particles and Radiation

  • Created by: Sagaana
  • Created on: 06-11-18 11:46
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  • PARTCLES AND RADIATION
    • Matter and Radiation
      • The structure of an atom
        • In every atom there is a proton neutron and electron
        • Isotopes have the number of protons and elctrons but has a different number of neutron
        • Specific Charge=  Charge/Mass
      • Stable and Unstable nuclei
        • Strong Nuclear force is the force that holds the nuclei of a stable isotope
        • ?
        • Alpha Decay-it consists of alpha particle which compromises of two proton and two neutrons
        • Beta Decay-it consist of fast moving electrons
          • Beta Minus decay- happens when there is too many neutron.
          • Beta Plus Decay- It happens when there is too many protons
      • Photon
        • Photon theory was established by Einstein . it is a short burst of waves.A packet of EM waves.
      • Particle and Antiparticles
        • it is antiparticle that has the same rest mass but has equal and opposite  charge  to the corresponding particle
        • When a particle and antiparticle meet they annihilate
        • anti-atoms?
      • Particle interactions
        • interactions is the process of particles interacting with each other
        • There are 6 main interactions:
          • electromagnetic force in between the two protons
          • neutron neutrino interactions
          • proton- anti-neutrino interaction
          • beta  minus decay
          • beta plus decay
          • electron capture
        • exchange particles - they are also know as force carries they are virtual particle that mediates the interactions
    • Quarks and leptons
      • The particle zoo
        • finding new particles ?
        • predict particles?
        • Strange Particle?
      • Particle sorting
        • we classify particles into two groups hadrons and Leptons
        • Hadrons are particles and antiparticles that can interact through strong interactions They can interact with all  four fundamental forces but when they are charged they interact through strong and electromagnetic
          • protons, neutrons,Pi meson K meson
        • Leptons are particles and antiparticles that do not interact through strong interactions .They interact through weak interactions gravitational and            electromagnetic interaction if charged .
          • Electrons muons neutrino
      • Leptons at work
        • lepton are seen as elementary particles as when they interact with each other they create hadrons
        • Electron neutrinos are made from beta decay and Muon neutrinos are made from muon decays
        • leptons numbers allow us to see if the interactions between a hadron and a lepton is possible .It see is leptons have been conserved in the interaction
      • Quarks and anti quarks
        • it is a subatomic particle that has a non zero value for strangeness
        • Quark is a subatomic particle that combine to make hadrons. They have charge and mass.
        • In a beta plus decay the up quark turns into a down quark for a beta minus decay the down quark becomes a up quark.
        • there are no anti meson because they are made up of quark and antiquark.
      • conservation rules
        • conservation of energy
        • conservation of Charge
        • conservation of leptons numbers
        • conservation of Baryon numbers
        • Conservation of Strangeness
        • strangeness is not conserved for weak interaction forces
        • what is never conserved?
    • Quantum phenomena
      • The photoelectric effect
        • It is electron being emitted from the surface of a metal when electromagnetic radiation above threshold frequency is directed at the metal.
        • the photon theory of light was put forward by Einstein in 1905 to explain the photoelectric effect he assumed that light is composed of wave packets
        • Einstein photon model was revolutionary as it solved how light can act like particles.It also fitted planks theory of vibrating atoms making energy quantised is a new way to think about energy.
        • Quantum is  a discrete quantity of energy proportional in magnitude to the frequency of the radiation it represents.
      • collisions of electrons with atoms
        • the process of creating ions is called ionisation
        • Untitled

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