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Energy transfer
Efficiency (%) = (useful energy output ÷ total energy input) x 100

(Change in) Gravitational potential energy (J) = mass (kg) x g x height (m)

Work done (J aka. Nm) = power (W) x time (s)

Work done (J) = force (N) x distance (m)

Kinetic energy…

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Energy transfer
- Conduction: when heat energy is transferred from particles to neighbouring
particles. Happens in solids.
- Radiation (aka. Infrared): electromagnetic waves so does not need particles (and
can happen in a vacuum). Affected by colour of the surfaces.

Surface Reflector Absorber

Shiny Best Worst

Matt white Good Good…

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Energy transfer

Power type Advantages Disadvantages Renewable


Nuclear- an isotope of - Clean- doesnt emit - Risk of accidents No
uranium (The fuel) used to greenhouse gases - Problem of disposal of
boil water steam turns - Low cost per unit of radioactive material once power
turbine turns generator electricity…

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