# IGCSE waves quick refrence notes.

this document includes all the required waves notes. this is written by Asser Ayman to for people who don't have time to waste.

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• Created by: Asser
• Created on: 23-02-13 00:57

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Physics Waves
Quick Reference
Created by: Asser Ayman
This is a quick reference notes of waves to those who
don't have time to waste however, these notes doesn't
mean neglecting of other official ones

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Waves
Luminous sources: Are objects that can create their own light
Note: all electromagnetic waves travel at the same speed in vacuum
Ray: Is a narrow beam of light
Types of rays
Parallel Converging Diverging
Shadows: occur when some light rays travel in a straight line while others are blocked by an object
Note: when light hits a reflecting surface, the angle of incidence should be = angle of reflection
Properties of an image of plane mirror:
Laterally inverted
As far behind the mirror as…read more

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Total internal reflection: when there are no light rays that refract and all of them get
reflected within the medium.
Critical angle: is an angle of incidence in the denser medium were the angle of refraction is
equal 90®.
Calculating critical angle:
Note: when light enters the medium at a straight line perpendicular to the surface of the
medium, it doesn't refract.
Dispersion: is the splitting of white light into a band of colors when it enters a prism.…read more

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Note: monochromatic light refracts at the two surfaces of a prism while normal light refracts only at
the second surface of the prism.
Lenses: are glass mediums that bend light and form images.
Types of lenses:
Convex lenses: is thickest at the middle and thinner round the edges. When rays
parallel to the principle axis enter the convex lenses, it bends those inwards and
makes them meet at a point known as principle focus.…read more

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Convex ray diagrams:

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Calculating magnification:
Types of waves: 1.longitudinal, 2.Transverse
Longitudinal wave: the wave energy travels parallel to the direction of vibration.
Transversal wave: the wave energy travels perpendicular to the direction of vibration.
Describing waves:
the speed of the wave measured in m/s
The number of waves passing any points each in a second.
is the distance between any point in a wave and an equivalent point in
the next wave
Is the maximum point a wave could reach from its resting position.…read more

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Electromagnetic spectrum: The full range of electromagnetic waves.
Uses of electromagnetic spectrum:
X-Rays = used in medicine and detective work.
Ultraviolet = used in fluoresce science and washing powder
Infrared = taking satellite photos
Microwaves = often used to cook food
Sound waves: are longitudinal waves
Necessary things needed for transmission of sound:
A source
A medium

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