OIL EXPLOITATION IN THE NIGER DELTA (case study)

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OIL EXPLOITATION IN THE NIGER DELTA (Conflict within a country)
Oil exploitation in Nigeria has created conflict between TNC's and the Ogoni people. Up to 1.5 million t
of oil has been split in the delta over the past 50 years. Nigeria is the world's sixth largest oil exporter.
Environmental/social implications
The WWF say that Nigeria is one of the 5 most polluted hot spots in the world.
It is disrupting the livelihoods of the 20 million people that live there ­ damaging crops and fishing grounds and it is a major contribution to violence in the region.
Gas flaring in Nigeria is the world's largest source of greenhouse gas emissions.
There are oil spills (the government have recognised 6,817 of them), acid rain and the stripping away of mangroves for pipeline routes which have killed off fish.
Construction and increased ship traffic have changed local wave patterns causing shore erosion and the migration of fish into deeper water.
Economic benefits:
It has caused the country to move from an LDC to a middle income country.
In 2008 the "petrodollar" accounted for 60% of GDP in the country, this has gone up by 35% since 1980.
Oil makes up 90% of export earnings and 80% of its revenue.
It has created many jobs which is particularly important as many Nigerians are self-sufficient on food.
Created a positive multiplier effect ­ with investment in infrastructure e.g. roads, schools etc.
A recent United Nations report put the quality of life in Nigeria below all the other major oil producing countries and the World bank sees Nigeria as a `fragile state'
due to failed governance, epidemic disease and the risk of armed conflict.

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