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AS Chemistry Revision-Chemistry for Life

1. Avagadro constant, 6.02 x 10²³
number of particles in 1 mole of a substance

2. Empirical formula-simplest ratio of atoms of each element in a compound

3. M oles = Mass

4. Model of an atom

Particle Mass on relative atomic scale Charg…

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ii. Excited electrons move to a higher energy state- they are promoted
iii. The electromagnetic radiation absorbed by each atom has a definite frequency
related to the difference in energy levels by E = hv

8. Emission spectra
Black background with coloured lines
Lines go down
Lines get closer at…

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ii. 3 bonding pairs and 1 lone pair ­ pyramidal- 109°
iii. 2 bonding pairs and 2 lone pairs ­ bent- 109°

3 groups of electrons ­ planar triangular - 120°

2 groups of electrons ­ linear - 180°








11. Reactions of…

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i. Poison is strongly absorbed onto the catalyst surface
ii. The poison blocks the catalyst surface, preventing reactants from bonding.

13. Mass spectrometer
Sample inlet-
Ionisation area- electrons produced by a heated filament bombard any atoms or
molecules in the sample and knock electrons out. Cations (positive ions) are formed:…

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i. Calculate energy transferred using:

Energy transferred (J) = m x c x T

Mass, specific heat capacity and change in temperature

ii. Calculate the moles of the fuel used using:

M oles = Mass ofMr
fuel used

iii. Enthalpy of combustion (kJmol¯¹)

=energy transferred (kJ )
moles of fuel…

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17. Structural isomerism
Chain isomerism- i.e. unbranched chains to branched chains
Positional isomerism- i.e. pentan-1-ol and pentan-2-ol
Functional group isomerism- same molecular formula but the functional groups are
different. i.e. ethanol and methoxymethane

18. Increasing octane number
i. Produces shorter, branched alkane + alkene
ii. Use of zeolite catalyst…

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o Outermost electrons is further away from the nucleus down a group
o This makes electrons less firmly held by the nucleus (weaker attraction)
o Therefore electrons require less energy to remove
Isotopes-atoms of the same element that have the same number of proton but different
numbers of neutrons


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