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Slide 1

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Introduced by the Treaty of
European Union in 1993…read more

Slide 2

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European Court of
Sits in Luxembourg and has 27 judges
In a court 11 judges sit, its the highest
court in the EU
Within the judges, they all select one to
be president of the court
Has advocate generals to assist in
researching the legal points
They oversee if law is being enacted in
all 27 member states
An example ­ RE Tachographs: The
Commission V United Kingdom 1979…read more

Slide 3

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Article 234 Rulings
Any court can refer a ruling or question to the
European court of justice if help on a European
Law is needed
When this happens only the law ruling is
decided, the case is returned back to the court
for the decision
All courts have the option to refer a case
Discretionary Referrals
E.G- Bulner V Bollinger
This case decided on the guidelines fro referrals -
1. Must be necessary to come to a decision
2. No need if previous case already decided
3. No need if the point is free form doubt
4. Court must look at all circumstances
5. All courts have the decision to refer or not.
· First case was ­ Van Duyn V Home Office…read more

Slide 4

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Court Operates
Cases are presented on paper due
to the range of languages
Use of an advocate general to
research the law and present the
All judges sign a form containing the
judgement even if the y do not agree
Is not bound by its past decisions
Can look at any documents that will
help with the cases decision…read more

Slide 5

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Council of the
The European
court of Institutions commission
The European
parliament…read more

Slide 6

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Council of Ministers
A government representative firm from
each nation in the union is sent to the
Normally the minister whose
responsibility is the topic being
discussed will go
Government heads meet twice a yer in
the European council/summit to discuss
broad matters of policy
There is a committee known as coreper
to help with day to day running's
The council is voted by votes being
roughly in proportion to the size of the
states population…read more

Slide 7

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Slide 8

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Slide 9

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Slide 10

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Smith E


A thorough PowerPoint presentation on the European Union. Note that the Article references should be updated to reflect the Treaty on the Functioning of the EU (to Art 267). The diagram on page 8 is very useful. 

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