OCR AS Chemistry (F322.1) - Basic Concepts and Hydrocarbons Revision Notes

These revision notes are for Basic Concepts and Hydrocarbons - the first module of F322 (Organic Chemistry) from OCR AS Chemistry A.

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OCR 12B AS Chemistry Notes
FUNCTIONAL GROUPS
=A specific arrangement of atoms which determines the chemical properties of a molecule
NAME ARRANGEMENT EXAMPLE
ALKANE
ALKENE
ALKYNE
ALCOHOL
ALDEHYDE
CARBOXYLIC ACID
KETONE
ESTER

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ACID ANHYDRIDE
HALAGENOALKANE
AMINE
NITRILE
ACID AMIDE
ACID CHLORIDE
ARENES
benzene
EPOXIDE…read more

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OCR AS Chemistry Notes
ISOMERISM
Isomerism exists between molecules which have the same molecular formula but the atoms are arranged
differently
Molecules have the same molecular formula but a different structure as the atoms are bonded differently
1) POSITIONAL ISOMERISM
Molecules have the same molecular formula but the functional group is on different positions in the carbon
chain
C 4H 8 isomers
2) FUNCTIONAL GROUP ISOMERISM…read more

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Molecules have the same molecular formula but the atoms are arranged differently to give different functional
groups
C 3H 6O isomers
3) CHAIN ISOMERISM
Molecules of the same molecular formula but the carbon chains are arranged in different ways through
branching
C 4H 10 isomers
Exists between molecules with the same molecular formula but also the same connectivity (which atoms are
bonded to which) but the atoms are arranged differently in 3D space
1) GEOMETRIC OR E/Z ISOMERISM
Exists in alkenes as there is no…read more

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OCR 12B AS Chemistry Notes
TYPES OF FORMULAE
1) MOLECULAR FORMULA
Tells us how many of each atom is in a compound
o e.g. C3H 6O
2) EMPIRICAL FORMULA
Simplest whole number ratio of atoms in a compound
o e.g. C 4H 10C 2H 5
3) DISPLAY FORMULA
Draw every atom and represent a covalent bond with a line
o e.g.
4) STRUCTURAL FORMULA
Atoms included to show their arrangement but no bonds drawn
o e.g.…read more

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OCR AS Chemistry Notes
NAMING ORGANIC COMPOUNDS
HOMOLOGOUS SERIES ­ a series of organic compounds with the same functional group but with each
successive member differing by CH2
Alkanes
NAME MOLECULAR FORMULA
METHANE CH4
ETHANE C 2H 6
PROPANE C 3H 8
BUTANE C 4 H 10
PENTANE C 5 H 12
HEXANE C 6 H 14
HEPTANE C 7 H 16
OCTANE C 8 H 18
NONANE C 9 H 20
DECANE C 10 H 22
C nH 2n+2
Naming Alkanes with Branches:
1.…read more

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METHYL
-
2 ETHYL-
3 PROPYL-
4 BUTYL-
Multiple Branches:
If the branches are different, we name then using the method above
o Use alphabetical order
If the branches are the same
o Include a number for every branch
o Use the prefix below
o Use a comma (,) to separate two numbers
NUMBER OF BRANCHES NAME
2 DI-
3 TRI-
4 TETRA-…read more

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Cycloalkanes:
Only count those in the ring when naming longest chain.…read more

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Chlorine CHLORO
-
Bromine BROMO-
Iodine IODO-
OCR 12B AS Chemistry Notes
ALKANES
PHYSICAL PROPERTIES:
o Melting points
o Boiling points
o Miscibility
DIFFER AS MOLECULES GET BIGGER
CHEMICAL PROPERTIES:
o What reactions it undergoes
SAME WITH SAME FUNCTIONAL GROUP
PHYSICAL PROPERTIES
MELTING / BOILING POINTS
As alkanes get bigger:
o More electrons
o Stronger dipoles stronger Van der Waal's forces…read more

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Need more energy to overcome these forces
o Longer alkanes HIGHER BOILING POINT
Alkanes with more branches:
o Van der Waal's forces are more prominent on the surface of a molecule
o More branched isomers less points of contact
o Thus less Van der Waal's forces
o More branches LOWER BOILING POINT
Straight chain alkanes:
o Straight chain more points of contact
o Thus less Van der Waal's forces
o Straight chain HIGHER BOILING POINT
MISCIBILITY
Alkanes do not mix with water ­ they are…read more

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