OCR AS Chemistry (F322.1) - Basic Concepts and Hydrocarbons Revision Notes

These revision notes are for Basic Concepts and Hydrocarbons - the first module of F322 (Organic Chemistry) from OCR AS Chemistry A.

These notes are compatible with Microsoft Word 2007 onwards.

Hope they helped!

HideShow resource information

Pages in this set

Page 1

Preview of page 1
OCR 12B AS Chemistry Notes


FUNCTIONAL GROUPS
=A specific arrangement of atoms which determines the chemical properties of a molecule

NAME ARRANGEMENT EXAMPLE



ALKANE



ALKENE


ALKYNE


ALCOHOL


ALDEHYDE



CARBOXYLIC ACID



KETONE



ESTER

Page 2

Preview of page 2
ACID ANHYDRIDE


HALAGENOALKANE


AMINE


NITRILE


ACID AMIDE



ACID CHLORIDE


ARENES
benzene



EPOXIDE

Page 3

Preview of page 3
OCR AS Chemistry Notes


ISOMERISM
Isomerism exists between molecules which have the same molecular formula but the atoms are arranged
differently




Molecules have the same molecular formula but a different structure as the atoms are bonded differently

1) POSITIONAL ISOMERISM
Molecules have the same molecular formula but the functional group…

Page 4

Preview of page 4
Molecules have the same molecular formula but the atoms are arranged differently to give different functional
groups




C 3H 6O isomers

3) CHAIN ISOMERISM
Molecules of the same molecular formula but the carbon chains are arranged in different ways through
branching




C 4H 10 isomers




Exists between molecules with the…

Page 5

Preview of page 5
OCR 12B AS Chemistry Notes

TYPES OF FORMULAE
1) MOLECULAR FORMULA

Tells us how many of each atom is in a compound
o e.g. C3H 6O

2) EMPIRICAL FORMULA

Simplest whole number ratio of atoms in a compound
o e.g. C 4H 10C 2H 5

3) DISPLAY FORMULA

Draw every…

Page 6

Preview of page 6
o e.g.

OCR AS Chemistry Notes

NAMING ORGANIC COMPOUNDS
HOMOLOGOUS SERIES ­ a series of organic compounds with the same functional group but with each
successive member differing by CH2


Alkanes
NAME MOLECULAR FORMULA

METHANE CH4
ETHANE C 2H 6
PROPANE C 3H 8
BUTANE C 4 H 10
PENTANE…

Page 7

Preview of page 7
1 METHYL
-
2 ETHYL-
3 PROPYL-
4 BUTYL-




Multiple Branches:
If the branches are different, we name then using the method above
o Use alphabetical order




If the branches are the same
o Include a number for every branch
o Use the prefix below
o Use a comma (,)…

Page 8

Preview of page 8
Cycloalkanes:
Only count those in the ring when naming longest chain. Any other carbons are branches
Prefix CYCLO- to indicate the ring
If there is only one branch, we don't need to include a number
If there are more branches, we need to include a number to show relative positions…

Page 9

Preview of page 9
Chlorine CHLORO
-
Bromine BROMO-
Iodine IODO-




OCR 12B AS Chemistry Notes

ALKANES
PHYSICAL PROPERTIES:
o Melting points
o Boiling points
o Miscibility
DIFFER AS MOLECULES GET BIGGER
CHEMICAL PROPERTIES:
o What reactions it undergoes
SAME WITH SAME FUNCTIONAL GROUP




PHYSICAL PROPERTIES
MELTING / BOILING POINTS

As alkanes get bigger:…

Page 10

Preview of page 10
o Need more energy to overcome these forces
o Longer alkanes HIGHER BOILING POINT
Alkanes with more branches:
o Van der Waal's forces are more prominent on the surface of a molecule
o More branched isomers less points of contact
o Thus less Van der Waal's forces
o More branches…

Comments

No comments have yet been made

Similar Chemistry resources:

See all Chemistry resources »See all resources »