OCR Chemistry A F324 definitions

All the definitions you need to know for F324 chemistry. 

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  • Created on: 18-06-13 19:01
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Key word Definition
Delocalised electrons Shared between more than two atoms.
A reactant is added to an unsaturated molecule to make a
Addition reaction
saturated molecule.
An atom or group of atoms is replaced with a different atom or
Substitution reaction
group of atoms.
Electrophile Electron pair acceptor.
Nucleophile Electron pair donor.
A type of substitution reaction in which an electrophile is attracted
Electrophilic substitution
to an electron-rich Centre or atom, where it accepts a pair of
reaction
electrons to form a covalent bond.
Reaction Mechanism A series of steps that, together, make up the overall reaction.
Symbol used to show the movement of an electron pair in a
Curly arrow
reaction mechanism.
The part of an organic molecule that is responsible for its chemical
Functional group
reactions.
The measure of the attraction of a bonded atom for the pair of
Electronegativity
electrons in a covalent bond.
Redox reaction One in which both reduction and oxidation take place.
The continual boiling and condensing of a reaction mixture to
Reflux ensure that the reaction takes place without the contents of the
flask boiling dry.
The reaction of an alcohol with a carboxylic acid to produce an
Esterification
ester and water.
A reaction with water or hydroxide ions that breaks a chemical
Hydrolysis
compound into two compounds.
Low-density lipoprotein Responsible for carrying cholesterol and triglycerides from the liver
(LDL) to the tissues.
High-density lipoprotein Removes cholesterol from the arteries and transports is back to
(HDL) the liver for excretion or reutilisation.
Peptide A compound made of amino acids liked by peptide bonds.
A basic amine group and an acidic carboxyl group attached to the
­ amino acid
same carbon atom.
A dipolar ionic for of an amino acid that is formed by the donation
Zwitterion of a hydrogen ion from the carboxyl group to the amino group. As
both charges are present, there is no overall charge.
Isoelectric point The pH value at which the amino acid acts as a zwitterion.
One in which two small molecules react together to form a larger
Condensation reaction
molecule with the elimination of a small molecule such as water.
Species with the same structural formula but different
Stereoisomers
arrangement f the atoms in space.
A carbon atom attached to four different atoms or groups of
Chiral carbon
atoms.
Stereoisomers that are non-superimposable images of each other.
Optical isomers

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The specific arrangements of atoms that occurs in the structure
Repeat unit
over and over again.
A polymer that breaks down completely into carbon dioxide and
Biodegradable polymer
water.
A polymer that breaks down into smaller fragments when exposed
Degradable polymer
to light, heat or moisture.
Synthetic polymers designed to become brittle and weak when
Photodegradable polymers
exposed to sunlight for prolonged periods.
Pharmacological activity The beneficial or adverse effects of a drug on living matter.…read more

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