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Key word Definition
Delocalised electrons Shared between more than two atoms.
A reactant is added to an unsaturated molecule to make a
An atom or group of atoms is replaced with a different atom or
group of atoms.
Electrophile Electron pair acceptor.
Nucleophile Electron pair donor.
A type of substitution reaction in which an electrophile is attracted
to an electron-rich Centre or atom, where it accepts a pair of
electrons to form a covalent bond.
Reaction Mechanism A series of steps that, together, make up the overall reaction.
Symbol used to show the movement of an electron pair in a
The part of an organic molecule that is responsible for its chemical
The measure of the attraction of a bonded atom for the pair of
electrons in a covalent bond.
Redox reaction One in which both reduction and oxidation take place.
The continual boiling and condensing of a reaction mixture to
Reflux ensure that the reaction takes place without the contents of the
flask boiling dry.
The reaction of an alcohol with a carboxylic acid to produce an
ester and water.
A reaction with water or hydroxide ions that breaks a chemical
compound into two compounds.
Low-density lipoprotein Responsible for carrying cholesterol and triglycerides from the liver
(LDL) to the tissues.
High-density lipoprotein Removes cholesterol from the arteries and transports is back to
(HDL) the liver for excretion or reutilisation.
Peptide A compound made of amino acids liked by peptide bonds.
A basic amine group and an acidic carboxyl group attached to the
same carbon atom.
A dipolar ionic for of an amino acid that is formed by the donation
Zwitterion of a hydrogen ion from the carboxyl group to the amino group. As
both charges are present, there is no overall charge.
Isoelectric point The pH value at which the amino acid acts as a zwitterion.
One in which two small molecules react together to form a larger
molecule with the elimination of a small molecule such as water.
Species with the same structural formula but different
arrangement f the atoms in space.
A carbon atom attached to four different atoms or groups of
Stereoisomers that are non-superimposable images of each other.
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The specific arrangements of atoms that occurs in the structure
over and over again.
A polymer that breaks down completely into carbon dioxide and
A polymer that breaks down into smaller fragments when exposed
to light, heat or moisture.
Synthetic polymers designed to become brittle and weak when
exposed to sunlight for prolonged periods.
Pharmacological activity The beneficial or adverse effects of a drug on living matter.…read more